LMC_Current folio_10K

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549

FORM 10‑K

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

OR

☐    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                  to                 

Commission File Number 001-35707

LIBERTY MEDIA CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

State of Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

    

37-1699499

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

 

12300 Liberty Boulevard
Englewood, Colorado

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

80112

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (720) 875-5400

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Name of exchange on which registered

Series A Liberty SiriusXM Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series B Liberty SiriusXM Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series C Liberty SiriusXM Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series A Liberty Braves Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series C Liberty Braves Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series A Liberty Formula One Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series C Liberty Formula One Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒   No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ☐  No ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒   No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒   No ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K (229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging Growth Company☐

Large accelerated filer ☒

Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☐

 

Smaller reporting company ☐

Emerging Growth Company☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐    No ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non affiliates of Liberty Media Corporation computed by reference to the last sales price of such stock, as of the closing of trading on June 29, 2018, was approximately $22.8  billion.

The number of outstanding shares of Liberty Media Corporation’s common stock as of January 31, 2019 was:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

Liberty SiriusXM common stock

 

102,809,736

 

9,821,531

 

210,823,353

 

Liberty Braves common stock

 

10,244,591

 

981,860

 

39,740,215

 

Liberty Formula One common stock

 

25,675,346

 

2,453,485

 

202,887,872

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

The Registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is hereby incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

LIBERTY MEDIA CORPORATION

2018 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10K

Table of Contents

 

    

Part I

    

Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

I1

 

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

I-24

 

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

I-57

 

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

I-57

 

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

I-58

 

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

I-58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

II1

 

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

II4

 

Item 7. 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

II6

 

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

II27

 

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

II27

 

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

II28

 

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

II28

 

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

II28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

III1

 

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation

 

III1

 

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

III1

 

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

III1

 

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

III1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

IV1

 

Item 16. 

 

Form 10‑K Summary

 

IV5

 

 

 

 

 


 

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PART I.

Item 1. Business.

General Development of Business

Liberty Media Corporation (“Liberty”, the “Company”, “we”, “us” and “our”) owns interests in subsidiaries and other companies which are engaged in the global media and entertainment industries. Our principal businesses and assets include our consolidated subsidiaries SIRIUS XM (defined below), Formula 1, Braves Holdings, LLC (“Braves Holdings”) and our equity affiliate Live Nation Entertainment, Inc. (“Live Nation”).

In September 2011, Liberty Interactive Corporation (“Liberty Interactive” and formerly named Liberty Media Corporation) completed the split-off of its former wholly-owned subsidiary (then known as Liberty Media Corporation) from its Liberty Interactive tracking stock group (the “Split-Off”). Liberty Interactive is now known as Qurate Retail, Inc. (“Qurate Retail”).

During August 2012, the board of directors of Starz (now known as Starz Acquisition, LLC and formerly known as Liberty Media Corporation) authorized a plan to distribute to the stockholders of Starz shares of a wholly-owned subsidiary, Liberty (formerly known as Liberty Spinco, Inc.), that held, as of January 11, 2013, all of the businesses, assets and liabilities of Starz not associated with Starz, LLC (with the exception of the Starz, LLC office building) (the “Starz Spin-Off”). The transaction was effected as a pro-rata dividend of shares of Liberty to the stockholders of Starz. The businesses, assets and liabilities not included in Liberty were part of a separate public company which was renamed Starz.

On January 18, 2013, Liberty, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, purchased 50,000,000 shares of the common stock (“SIRIUS XM Common Stock”), par value $0.001 per share, of SIRIUS XM Radio, Inc. (now known as Sirius XM Holdings Inc., “SIRIUS XM”). Additionally, on January 18, 2013 a subsidiary of the Company converted all of its remaining shares of SIRIUS XM’s Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series B-1, par value $0.001 per share, into 1,293,509,076 shares of SIRIUS XM Common Stock. As a result of these transactions, along with shares of SIRIUS XM Common Stock already held by the Company, the Company and its subsidiaries held more than 50% of the capital stock of SIRIUS XM entitled to vote. Therefore, Liberty began consolidating SIRIUS XM in the first quarter of 2013. SIRIUS XM, since the date of our investment, has repurchased approximately 2.7 billion SIRIUS XM shares for approximately $10.7 billion. As of December 31, 2018 our economic ownership interest in SIRIUS XM is approximately 73%. On February 1, 2019, SIRIUS XM issued shares of SIRIUS XM Common Stock in conjunction with its acquisition of Pandora Media, Inc. (“Pandora”), which reduced our economic ownership in SIRIUS XM to approximately 67% as of such date.

During 2014, Liberty’s board of directors approved the issuance of shares of Series C Liberty Media Corporation common stock to holders of its Series A Liberty Media Corporation and Series B Liberty Media Corporation common stock, effected by means of a dividend. On July 23, 2014, holders of Series A and Series B Liberty Media Corporation common stock received a dividend of two shares of Series C Liberty Media Corporation common stock for each share of Series A or Series B Liberty Media Corporation common stock held by them as of July 7, 2014.

On November 4, 2014, Liberty completed the spin-off to its stockholders of common stock of a newly formed company called Liberty Broadband Corporation (“Liberty Broadband”) (the “Broadband Spin-Off”). At the time of the Broadband Spin-Off, Liberty Broadband was comprised of, among other things, (i) Liberty’s former interest in Charter Communications, Inc. (“Charter”), (ii) Liberty’s former subsidiary TruePosition, Inc. (“TruePosition”) (now known as Skyhook Holding, Inc.), (iii) Liberty’s former minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable, Inc. (“Time Warner Cable”), (iv) certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to Time Warner Cable call options and (v) indebtedness, pursuant to margin loans, entered into prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. In September 2015, Liberty entered into a closing agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) which provided that the Broadband Spin-Off qualified for tax-free treatment.

During November 2015, Liberty’s board of directors authorized management to pursue a reclassification of the Company’s common stock into three new tracking stock groups, one to be designated as the Liberty Braves tracking stock,

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one to be designated as the Liberty Media tracking stock and one to be designated as the Liberty SiriusXM tracking stock (the “Recapitalization”), and to cause to be distributed subscription rights related to the Liberty Braves tracking stock following the creation of the new tracking stocks. The Recapitalization was completed on April 15, 2016 and the newly issued shares commenced trading or quotation in the regular way on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or the OTC Markets, as applicable, on April 18, 2016. In May 2016, the IRS completed its review of the Recapitalization and notified Liberty that it agreed with the nontaxable characterization of the transaction.

In the Recapitalization, each issued and outstanding share of Liberty’s existing common stock was reclassified and exchanged for (a) 1 share of the corresponding series of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, (b) 0.1 of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Braves common stock and (c) 0.25 of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Media common stock on April 15, 2016. Cash was paid in lieu of the issuance of any fractional shares.

Following the creation of the tracking stocks, Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock trade under the symbols LSXMA/B/K, respectively; Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Braves common stock trade or are quoted under the symbols BATRA/B/K respectively; and Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Media common stock traded or were quoted under the symbols LMCA/B/K, respectively. Shortly following the Second Closing (as defined below), the Liberty Media Group and Liberty Media common stock were renamed the Liberty Formula One Group (the “Formula One Group”) and the Liberty Formula One common stock, respectively, and the corresponding ticker symbols for the Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Media common stock were changed to FWONA/B/K, respectively. Each series (Series A, Series B and Series C) of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Series A and Series C Liberty Braves common stock trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Stock Market and Series B Liberty Braves common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets. Series A and Series C Liberty Formula One common stock trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Series B Liberty Formula One common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets. Although the Second Closing (as defined below), and the corresponding tracking stock name and the ticker symbol change, were not completed until January 23 and January 24, 2017, respectively, historical information of the Liberty Media Group and Liberty Media common stock is referred to herein as the Formula One Group and Liberty Formula One common stock, respectively.

In addition, following the creation of the new tracking stocks, Liberty distributed to holders of its Liberty Braves common stock subscription rights to acquire shares of Series C Liberty Braves common stock in order to raise capital to repay an intergroup note and for working capital purposes. The rights offering commenced on May 18, 2016, which was also the ex-dividend date for the distribution of the Series C Liberty Braves subscription rights. The rights offering expired on June 16, 2016 and was fully subscribed with 15,833,634 shares of Series C Liberty Braves common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, if applicable, oversubscription privileges. In September 2016, the IRS completed its review of the distribution of the Series C Liberty Braves subscription rights and notified Liberty that it agreed with the nontaxable characterization of the distribution.

On September 7, 2016, Liberty, through its indirect wholly owned subsidiary Liberty GR Cayman Acquisition Company, entered into two definitive stock purchase agreements relating to the acquisition of Delta Topco Limited (“Delta Topco”), the parent company of Formula 1. The transactions contemplated by the first purchase agreement were completed on September 7, 2016, resulting in the acquisition of slightly less than a 20% minority stake in Formula 1 on an undiluted basis. On October 27, 2016 under the terms of the first purchase agreement, Liberty acquired an additional incremental equity interest in Delta Topco, maintaining Liberty’s investment in Delta Topco on an undiluted basis and increasing slightly to 19.1% on a fully diluted basis. Liberty acquired 100% of the fully diluted equity interests of Delta Topco, other than a nominal number of shares held by certain Formula 1 teams, in a closing under the second purchase agreement (and following the unwind of the first purchase agreement) on January 23, 2017 (the “Second Closing”). Liberty’s interest in Delta Topco and by extension, in Formula 1, along with existing Formula 1 cash and debt (which are non-recourse to Liberty), are attributed to the Formula One Group.

A tracking stock is a type of common stock that the issuing company intends to reflect or “track” the economic performance of a particular business or “group,” rather than the economic performance of the company as a whole. While the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Liberty Braves Group (the “Braves Group”) and Formula One Group have separate collections of businesses, assets and liabilities attributed to them, no group is a separate legal entity and therefore cannot own assets, issue securities or enter into legally binding agreements. Therefore, the Liberty SiriusXM Group, Braves Group

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and Formula One Group do not represent separate legal entities, but rather represent those businesses, assets and liabilities that have been attributed to each respective group. Holders of tracking stock have no direct claim to the group’s stock or assets and therefore, do not own, by virtue of their ownership of a Liberty tracking stock, any equity or voting interest in a company, such as SIRIUS XM, Formula 1 or Live Nation, in which Liberty holds an interest and that is attributed to a Liberty tracking stock group, such as the Liberty SiriusXM Group or the Formula One Group. Holders of a tracking stock are also not represented by separate boards of directors. Instead, holders of a tracking stock are stockholders of the parent corporation, with a single board of directors and subject to all of the risks and liabilities of the parent corporation.

The Liberty SiriusXM tracking stock is intended to track and reflect the separate economic performance of the businesses, assets and liabilities attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group: Liberty’s subsidiary SIRIUS XM, corporate cash, investments in debt securities, Liberty’s 2.125% Exchangeable Senior Debentures due 2048 and a margin loan obligation incurred by a wholly-owned special purpose subsidiary of Liberty. SIRIUS XM is the only operating subsidiary attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group. In the event SIRIUS XM were to become insolvent or file for bankruptcy, Liberty’s management would evaluate the circumstances at such time and take appropriate steps in the best interest of all of its stockholders, which may not be in the best interest of a particular group or groups when considered independently. In such a situation, Liberty’s management and its board of directors would have several approaches at their disposal, including, but not limited to, the conversion of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock into another tracking stock of Liberty, the reattribution of assets and liabilities among Liberty’s tracking stock groups or the restructuring of Liberty’s tracking stocks to either create a new tracking stock structure or eliminate it altogether. On February 1, 2019, SIRIUS XM acquired Pandora. See note 7 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for more information regarding the acquisition of Pandora.

The Liberty Braves tracking stock is intended to track and reflect the separate economic performance of the businesses, assets and liabilities attributed to the Braves Group: its subsidiary, Braves Holdings, which indirectly owns the Atlanta Braves Major League Baseball Club (“ANLBC,” the “Atlanta Braves,” the “Braves,” the “club,” or the “team”) and certain assets and liabilities associated with ANLBC’s stadium and mixed use development project (the “Development Project”) and cash. The Formula One Group holds an intergroup interest in the Braves Group.

The Liberty Formula One tracking stock is intended to track and reflect the separate economic performance of the businesses, assets and liabilities attributed to the Formula One Group which include all of the businesses, assets and liabilities of Liberty other than those specifically attributed to the Braves Group or the Liberty SiriusXM Group, including Liberty’s interests in Formula 1 and Live Nation, cash, Liberty’s 1.375% Cash Convertible Notes due 2023 and related financial instruments, Liberty’s 1% Cash Convertible Notes due 2023, Liberty’s 2.25% Exchangeable Senior Debentures due 2046 and Liberty’s 2.25% Exchangeable Senior Debentures due 2048. As part of the Recapitalization, the Formula One Group initially held a 20% intergroup interest in the Braves Group. As a result of the rights offering, the number of notional shares representing the intergroup interest held by the Formula One Group was adjusted to 9,084,940, representing a 15.1% intergroup interest in the Braves Group at December 31, 2018. The intergroup interest is a quasi-equity interest which is not represented by outstanding shares of common stock; rather, the Formula One Group has an attributed interest in the Braves Group which is generally stated in terms of a number of shares of Series C Liberty Braves common stock issuable to the Formula One Group with respect to its interest in the Braves Group. The intergroup interest may be settled, at the discretion of the board of directors, through the transfer of newly issued shares of Liberty Braves common stock, cash and/or other assets to the Formula One Group. The intergroup interest will remain outstanding until the cancellation of the outstanding interest, at the discretion of the Company’s board of directors, through transfer of securities, cash and/or other assets from the Braves Group to the Formula One Group.

 

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* * * * *

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding our business, product and marketing strategies and initiatives; new service offerings; revenue growth and subscriber trends at SIRIUS XM; the recoverability of our goodwill and other long-lived assets; the performance of our equity affiliates; our projected sources and uses of cash; the payment of dividends by SIRIUS XM; the anticipated non-material impact of certain contingent liabilities related to legal and tax proceedings; and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. In particular, statements under Item 1. “Business,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors,” Item 2. “Properties,” Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Item 7A. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” contain forward-looking statements. Where, in any forward-looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. The following include some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated:

·

consumer demand for our products and services and our ability to adapt to changes in demand;

·

competitor responses to our businesses’ products and services;

·

uncertainties inherent in the development and integration of new business lines and business strategies;

·

uncertainties associated with product and service development and market acceptance, including the development and provision of programming for satellite radio and telecommunications technologies;

·

our businesses’ significant dependence upon automakers;

·

our businesses’ ability to attract and retain subscribers in the future is uncertain;

·

our future financial performance, including availability, terms and deployment of capital;

·

our ability to successfully integrate and recognize anticipated efficiencies and benefits from the businesses we acquire;

·

the ability of suppliers and vendors to deliver products, equipment, software and services;

·

interruption or failure of our information technology and communication systems, including the failure of SIRIUS XM’s satellites, could negatively impact our results and brand;

·

royalties for music rights have increased and may continue to do so in the future;

·

the integration of Pandora by SIRIUS XM and the impact of the acquisition on SIRIUS XM’s expected results of operations and financial condition;

·

the outcome of any pending or threatened litigation or investigation;

·

availability of qualified personnel;

·

changes in, or failure or inability to comply with, government regulations, including, without limitation, regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) and consumer protection laws, and adverse outcomes from regulatory proceedings;

·

changes in the nature of key strategic relationships with partners, vendors and joint venturers;

·

general economic and business conditions and industry trends;

·

consumer spending levels, including the availability and amount of individual consumer debt;

·

rapid technological changes;

·

impairments of third-party intellectual property rights;

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·

our indebtedness could adversely affect operations and could limit the ability of our subsidiaries to react to changes in the economy or our industry;

·

failure to protect the security of personal information about our businesses’ customers, subjecting our businesses to potentially costly government enforcement actions or private litigation and reputational damage;

·

the regulatory and competitive environment of the industries in which we, and the entities in which we have interests, operate; and

·

threatened terrorist attacks, political unrest in international markets and ongoing military action around the world.

These forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to disseminate any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. When considering such forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the factors described in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and other cautionary statements contained in this Annual Report. Such risk factors and statements describe circumstances which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

This Annual Report includes information concerning public companies in which we have controlling and non-controlling interests that file reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Information in this Annual Report concerning those companies has been derived from the reports and other information filed by them with the SEC. If you would like further information about these companies, the reports and other information they file with the SEC can be accessed on the Internet website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov. Those reports and other information are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report.

Narrative Description of Business

The following table identifies our more significant subsidiaries and minority investments.

Consolidated Subsidiaries

Sirius XM Holdings Inc. (Nasdaq:SIRI)

Formula 1

Braves Holdings, LLC

Equity Method Investments

Live Nation Entertainment, Inc. (NYSE:LYV)

SIRIUS XM

SIRIUS XM transmits music, sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, news, traffic and weather channels, as well as infotainment services, in the United States on a subscription fee basis through its two proprietary satellite radio systems. SIRIUS XM also transmits a larger set of music and other channels and video programming through its streaming service. SIRIUS XM’s streaming service is available online and through applications for mobile devices, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment. SIRIUS XM also provides connected vehicle services. SIRIUS XM’s connected vehicle services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience for vehicle operators while providing marketing and operational benefits to automakers and their dealers. As of December 31, 2018, SIRIUS XM had approximately 34 million subscribers. Its subscribers include:

·

subscribers under its regular and discounted pricing plans;

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·

subscribers that have prepaid, including payments made or due from automakers for subscriptions included in the sale or lease price of a vehicle;

·

subscribers to its streaming services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions; and

·

certain subscribers to its weather, traffic and data services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions.

SIRIUS XM’s primary source of revenue is subscription fees, with most of its customers subscribing to monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual plans. SIRIUS XM offers discounts for prepaid subscription plans, as well as a multiple subscription discount. SIRIUS XM also derives revenue from certain fees, the sale of advertising on select non-music channels, the direct sale of satellite radios and accessories, and other ancillary services, such as its weather, traffic and data services. SIRIUS XM provides traffic services to approximately 8.6 million vehicles.

SIRIUS XM’s satellite radios are primarily distributed through automakers, retailers and its website. SIRIUS XM has agreements with every major automaker to offer satellite radios in their vehicles, through which SIRIUS XM acquires the majority of its subscribers. SIRIUS XM also acquires subscribers through marketing to owners and lessees of previously-owned vehicles that include factory-installed satellite radios that are not currently subscribing to its services. Satellite radio services are also offered to customers of certain rental car companies.

Programming

SIRIUS XM offers a dynamic programming lineup of commercial-free music plus sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, and news, including:

·

an extensive selection of music genres, ranging from rock, pop and hip-hop to country, dance, jazz, Latin and classical;

·

live play-by-play sports from major leagues and colleges;

·

a multitude of talk and entertainment channels for a variety of audiences;

·

a wide range of national, international and financial news; and

·

exclusive limited run channels.

SIRIUS XM’s diverse programming, including its lineup of exclusive content, is a significant differentiator from terrestrial radio and other audio entertainment providers. SIRIUS XM makes changes to its programming lineup from time to time as it strives to attract new subscribers and offer content which appeals to a broad range of audiences and to existing subscribers. The channel line-ups for its services are available at siriusxm.com.

Streaming Service

SIRIUS XM streams select music and non-music channels over the Internet. Its streaming service includes channels that are not available on its satellite radio service. Access to its streaming service is currently offered to subscribers for a fee. SIRIUS XM also offers applications to allow consumers to access its streaming service on smartphones, tablets, computers, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment.

SiriusXM Internet Radio offers listeners enhanced programming discovery and the ability to connect with content currently playing across SIRIUS XM’s commercial-free music, sports, comedy, news, talk and entertainment channels or available through SiriusXM On Demand. SiriusXM On Demand offers its streaming subscribers the ability to choose their favorite episodes from a catalog of content whenever they want.

In 2018, SIRIUS XM launched a new platform and redesigned its mobile app to deliver an enhanced streaming experience. That experience includes expanded programming, greater discovery, more intuitive recommendations, the introduction of video programming and other features designed to increase consumer engagement with SIRIUS XM’s streaming product.  SIRIUS XM’s internet-based video offering currently features Howard Stern, arranged and presented

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in an easy-to-view manner, with highlights from Howard Stern’s interviews with celebrity guests, musical performances in the Howard Stern studio, show clips, and show specials.  SIRIUS XM expects to expand its video offering in 2019 with, among other items, live segments of Howard Stern's show and video generated by SIRIUS XM’s hosts and guests.

360L

In 2018, SIRIUS XM introduced a user interface, which SIRIUS XM calls “360L,” that combines SIRIUS XM’s satellite and streaming services into a single, cohesive in-vehicle entertainment experience. SIRIUS XM’s 360L interface has been deployed in Dodge Ram trucks and is in the process of being introduced by several other automakers. 360L allows SIRIUS XM to take advantage of advanced in-dash infotainment systems. 360L is intended to leverage the ubiquitous signal coverage of SIRIUS XM’s satellite infrastructure and low delivery costs with the two-way communication capability of a wireless streaming service to provide consumers seamless access to SIRIUS XM’s content, including SIRIUS XM’s live channels, on demand service and even more personalized music services. The wireless streaming connection included in 360L enables enhanced search and recommendations functions, making discovery of SIRIUS XM’s content in the vehicle easier. 360L also allows consumers to manage aspects of their subscriptions directly through their vehicles’ equipment and provides SIRIUS XM important data to better enable it to understand how subscribers use SIRIUS XM’s service and how it can more effectively market its service to consumers.

Distribution of Radios

Automakers. SIRIUS XM distributes satellite radios through the sale and lease of new vehicles. SIRIUS XM has agreements with every major automaker to offer satellite radios in their vehicles. Satellite radios are available as a factory or dealer-installed option in substantially all vehicle makes sold in the United States. Most automakers include a subscription to SIRIUS XM’s service in the sale or lease of their new vehicles. In certain cases, SIRIUS XM receives subscription payments from automakers in advance of the activation of its service. SIRIUS XM shares with certain automakers a portion of the revenue it derives from subscribers using vehicles equipped to receive SIRIUS XM’s service. SIRIUS XM also reimburses various automakers for certain costs associated with the satellite radios installed in new vehicles, including in certain cases hardware costs, engineering expenses and promotional and advertising expenses.

Previously Owned Vehicles. SIRIUS XM also acquires subscribers through the sale and lease of previously owned vehicles with factory-installed satellite radios. SIRIUS XM has entered into agreements with many automakers to market subscriptions to purchasers and lessees of vehicles which include satellite radios sold through their certified pre-owned programs. SIRIUS XM also works directly with franchise and independent dealers on programs for non-certified used vehicles. SIRIUS XM has developed systems and methods to identify purchasers and lessees of previously owned vehicles which include satellite radios and has established marketing plans to promote its services to these potential subscribers.

Retail. SIRIUS XM sells satellite radios directly to consumers through its website. Satellite radios are also marketed and distributed through national, regional and internet retailers, such as amazon.com.

SIRIUS XM’s Satellite Radio Systems

SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio systems are designed to provide clear reception in most areas of the continental United States despite variations in terrain, buildings and other obstructions. SIRIUS XM continually monitors its infrastructure and regularly evaluates improvements in technology.

SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio systems have three principal components: satellites, terrestrial repeaters and other satellite facilities; studios; and radios.

Satellites, Terrestrial Repeaters and Other Satellite Facilities

Satellites. SIRIUS XM provides its service through a fleet of five orbiting geostationary satellites, two in the Sirius system, FM‑5 and FM‑6, and three in the XM system, XM‑3, XM‑4 and XM‑5. SIRIUS XM’s XM‑5 satellite serves as a spare for both the XM and Sirius systems.

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SIRIUS XM has entered into agreements for the design, construction and launch of two new satellites, SXM‑7 and SXM‑8, which it plans to launch into geostationary orbits in 2019 and 2020, respectively, as replacements for XM‑3 and XM‑4.

Satellite Insurance. SIRIUS XM has procured insurance for SXM‑7 and SXM‑8 to cover the risks associated with each satellite’s launch and first year in orbit. SIRIUS XM does not have insurance policies covering its in-orbit satellites, as SIRIUS XM considers the premium costs to be uneconomical relative to the risk of satellite failure.

Terrestrial Repeaters. In some areas with high concentrations of tall buildings, such as urban centers, signals from SIRIUS XM’s satellites may be blocked and reception of satellite signals can be adversely affected. In other areas with a high density of next generation wireless systems, SIRIUS XM’s service may experience interference. In many of these areas, SIRIUS XM has deployed terrestrial repeaters to supplement and enhance its signal coverage and in many other areas, SIRIUS XM is planning to deploy additional repeaters to reduce interference. SIRIUS XM operates over 1,000 terrestrial repeaters across the United States as part of its systems.

Other Satellite Facilities. SIRIUS XM controls and communicates with its satellites from facilities in North America. Its satellites are monitored, tracked and controlled by a third party satellite operator.

Studios

SIRIUS XM’s programming originates from studios in New York City and Washington, D.C., and, to a lesser extent, from smaller studios in Los Angeles, Nashville and a variety of venues across the country. SIRIUS XM’s corporate headquarters is based in New York City.

Radios

SIRIUS XM does not manufacture radios. SIRIUS XM has authorized manufacturers and distributors to produce and distribute radios, and has licensed its technology to various electronics manufacturers to develop, manufacture and distribute radios under certain brands. SIRIUS XM manages various aspects of the production of satellite radios. To facilitate the sale of radios, SIRIUS XM may subsidize a portion of the radio manufacturing costs to reduce the hardware price to consumers.

Connected Vehicle Services

SIRIUS XM also provides connected vehicle services to several automakers and directly to consumers through aftermarket devices. SIRIUS XM’s connected vehicle services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience for vehicle operators while providing marketing and operational benefits to automakers and their dealers. SIRIUS XM offers a portfolio of location-based services through two-way wireless connectivity, including safety, security, convenience, maintenance and data services, remote vehicle diagnostics and stolen or parked vehicle locator services. 

In 2017, Sirius XM purchased Automatic Labs Inc. ("Automatic"), a connected vehicle device and mobile application company.  Automatic offers a subscription service for consumers and auto dealers.  By pairing Automatic's install-it-yourself adapter and mobile application, most vehicles model year 1996 or later can be transformed into connected vehicles. Using the Automatic service, drivers have access to important services, such as crash alerts, roadside assistance, vehicle location monitoring and sharing, vehicle health and performance monitoring, and recall notifications and service reminders.  Auto dealers can also employ the Automatic service to, among other things, assist in managing vehicle inventory, monitoring the status of vehicles and delivering notifications and reminders to purchasers and lessees of vehicles.  The Automatic adapter collects detailed information about each vehicle's geolocation, use, operation, performance and maintenance status in order to operate, maintain, and provide the features and functionality of the Automatic service.

Subscribers to SIRIUS XM’s connected vehicle services are not included in its subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.

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Other Services

Commercial Accounts. SIRIUS XM’s programming is available for commercial establishments. Commercial subscription accounts are available through providers of in-store entertainment solutions and directly from SIRIUS XM.

Satellite Television Service. Certain of SIRIUS XM’s music channels are offered as part of select programming packages on the DISH Network satellite television service.

Travel Link. SIRIUS XM offers Travel Link, a suite of data services that includes graphical weather, fuel prices, sports schedules and scores, and movie listings.

Real Time Traffic Services. SIRIUS XM offers services that provide graphic information as to road closings, traffic flow and incident data to consumers with compatible in-vehicle navigation systems.

Real Time Weather Services. SIRIUS XM offers several real-time weather services designed for improving situational awareness in vehicles, boats and planes.

Commercial subscribers are included in SIRIUS XM’s subscriber count, and subscribers to the DISH Network satellite television service are not included in its subscriber count.  Subscribers to SIRIUS XM’s Travel Link, real-time traffic services and real-time weather services are not included in its subscriber count, unless the applicable service is purchased by the subscriber separately and not as part of a radio subscription to SIRIUS XM’s service.

SIRIUS XM Canada

SIRIUS XM holds a 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in SIRIUS XM Canada Holdings Inc. (“SIRIUS XM Canada”), with the remainder of the SIRIUS XM Canada voting and equity interests held by two shareholders.

SIRIUS XM also entered into a Services Agreement and an Advisory Services Agreement with SIRIUS XM Canada. Each agreement has a thirty year term. Pursuant to the Services Agreement, SIRIUS XM Canada will pay SIRIUS XM 25% of its gross revenue on a monthly basis through December 31, 2021 and 30% of its gross revenue on a monthly basis thereafter. Pursuant to the Advisory Services Agreement, SIRIUS XM Canada pays SIRIUS XM 5% of its gross revenue on a monthly basis.

As of December 31, 2018, Sirius XM Canada had approximately 2.6 million subscribers. Sirius XM Canada’s subscribers are not included in SIRIUS XM’s subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.

Pandora

Pandora is a music discovery platform, offering a personalized experience for each of its listeners. Pandora is available as an ad-supported radio service, a radio subscription service called Pandora Plus and an on-demand subscription service called Pandora Premium.

On February 1, 2019, SIRIUS XM acquired Pandora in an all-stock transaction valued at $2.9 billion. In connection with the acquisition, each outstanding share of Pandora common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, was converted into the right to receive 1.44 shares of SIRIUS XM common stock, par value $0.001 per share. Pandora’s Series A convertible preferred stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”) was cancelled upon completion of the acquisition. See note 7 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for information related to SIRIUS XM’s acquisition of Pandora.

On September 22, 2017, a subsidiary of SIRIUS XM completed a $480 million investment in Pandora’s Series A Preferred Stock. The Series A Preferred Stock, including accrued but unpaid dividends, represented an approximate 19% interest in Pandora’s outstanding common stock and an approximate 16% interest on an as-converted basis.

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The Series A Preferred Stock was convertible at the option of the holders at any time into shares of common stock of Pandora (“Pandora Common Stock”) at an initial conversion price of $10.50 per share of Pandora Common Stock and an initial conversion rate of 95.2381 shares of Pandora Common Stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock, subject to certain customary anti-dilution adjustments. Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock were entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 6.0% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, if and when declared. Any conversion of Series A Preferred Stock could be settled by Pandora, at its option, in shares of Pandora Common Stock, cash or any combination thereof. However, unless and until Pandora’s stockholders had approved the issuance of greater than 19.99% of the outstanding Pandora Common Stock, the Series A Preferred Stock could not be converted into more than 19.99% of Pandora’s outstanding Pandora Common Stock as of June 9, 2017.

The investment included a mandatory redemption feature on any date from and after September 22, 2022 and therefore the financial instrument was treated as a debt security. As the investment included a conversion option, SIRIUS XM elected to account for this investment under the fair value option. Any gains (losses) associated with the change in fair value were recognized in realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments, net in the consolidated statements of operations.

Pursuant to an investment agreement with Pandora, SIRIUS XM appointed three of its senior executives or members of its Board of Directors to Pandora’s Board of Directors, one of whom served as the Chairman of Pandora’s Board of Directors.

Copyrights to Programming

In connection with its music programming, SIRIUS XM must negotiate and enter into royalty arrangements with two sets of rights holders: holders of copyrights in musical works (that is, the music and lyrics) and holders of copyrights in sound recordings (that is, the actual recording of a work).

Musical works rights holders, generally songwriters and music publishers, have been traditionally represented by performing rights organizations, such as the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (“ASCAP”), Broadcast Music, Inc. (“BMI”), and SESAC, Inc. (“SESAC”). The market for rights relating to musical works is changing rapidly. Songwriters and music publishers have withdrawn from the traditional performing rights organizations, particularly ASCAP and BMI, and new entities, such as Global Music Rights LLC (“GMR”) have been formed to represent rights holders. These organizations negotiate fees with copyright users, collect royalties and distribute them to the rights holders. SIRIUS XM has arrangements with ASCAP, SESAC and GMR, and is in negotiations with BMI for a new agreement. If SIRIUS XM is unable to reach an agreement with BMI, a court will determine the royalty SIRIUS XM will be required to pay BMI. The changing market for musical works may have an adverse effect on SIRIUS XM, including increasing its costs or limiting the musical works available to SIRIUS XM.

Sound recording rights holders, typically large record companies, are primarily represented by SoundExchange, Inc. (“SoundExchange”), an organization which negotiates licenses, and collects and distributes royalties on behalf of record companies and performing artists. SIRIUS XM may negotiate royalty arrangements with the owners of sound recordings, or, if negotiation is unsuccessful, the royalty rate is established by the Copyright Royalty Board (the “CRB”) of the Library of Congress.

In December 2017, the CRB issued its determination regarding the royalty rate payable by SIRIUS XM under the statutory license covering the performance of sound recordings fixed after February 15, 1972 over its satellite radio service, and the making of ephemeral (server) copies in support of such performances, for the five-year period starting on January 1, 2018 and ending on December 31, 2022. Under the terms of the CRB’s decision, SIRIUS XM is required to pay a royalty of 15.5% of gross revenue, subject to exclusions and adjustments.

The rates and terms contained in the CRB’s December 2017 determination permit SIRIUS XM to reduce the payment due each month by the percentage of SIRIUS XM’s transmissions of recordings that are directly licensed from copyright owners and the percentage of transmissions that comprise recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 that SIRIUS XM has licensed. The revenue subject to royalty includes subscription revenue from SIRIUS XM’s U.S. satellite digital audio radio subscribers and advertising revenue from channels other than those channels that make only incidental

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performances of sound recordings. Exclusions from revenue subject to the statutory license fee include, among other things:

·

monies or other consideration attributable to the sale and/or license of equipment and/or other technology, including but not limited to bandwidth, sales of devices that receive SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio services and any shipping and handling fees therefor;

·

royalties paid to SIRIUS XM for intellectual property rights;

·

sales and use taxes;

·

credit card, invoice, activation, swap and early termination fees charged to subscribers and reasonably related to the expenses to which they pertain;

·

bad debt expense; and

·

revenue attributable to SIRIUS XM’s current and future data services offered for a separate charge (such as weather, traffic, destination information, messaging, sports scores, stock ticker information, extended program associated data, video and photographic images, and such other telematics and/or data services as may exist from time to time); channels, programming, products and/or other services offered for a separate charge where such channels use only incidental performances of sound recordings; channels, programming, products and/or other services provided outside of the United States; and channels, programming, products and/or other services for which the performance of the recordings is exempt from any license requirement or is separately licensed, including by a statutory license.

In 2018, the Copyright Act was amended by The Orrin G. Hatch-Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act (the “Music Modernization Act”).  Under the Music Modernization Act, the use of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 is now subject to a royalty at the existing rate set by the CRB; the existing sound recording royalty rate was extended for five years, through December 31, 2027; and the law foreclosed SIRIUS XM’s ability to appeal the December 2017 determination of the CRB. Sound recordings that were fixed before February 15, 1972 were previously governed by state law.  During 2015 and 2016, SIRIUS XM settled suits with copyright owners for almost all of the pre-1972 sound recordings it uses and entered into direct licenses for their use. 

The licensing of sound recordings for use on the Internet is also subject to the United States Copyright Act on terms established by the CRB. In 2018, SIRIUS XM paid a per performance rate for the streaming of certain sound recordings on the Internet of $0.0023. In accordance with the CRB’s decision, this royalty rate may increase through 2020 based on changes in the consumer price index.

Trademarks

SIRIUS XM registered, and intends to maintain, the trademarks “Sirius”, “XM”, “SiriusXM” and “SXM” with the United States Patent and Trademark Office in connection with the services it offers. SIRIUS XM is not aware of any material claims of infringement or other challenges to its right to use the “Sirius”, “XM”, “SiriusXM” or “SXM” trademarks in the United States. SIRIUS XM also has registered, and intends to maintain, trademarks for the names of certain of its channels. SIRIUS XM has also registered the trademarks “Sirius”, “XM” and “SiriusXM” in Canada. SIRIUS XM has granted a license to use certain of its trademarks in Canada to SIRIUS XM Canada.

Formula 1

Formula 1 holds the exclusive commercial rights with respect to the FIA Formula One World Championship (the “World Championship”), an annual, approximately nine-month long, motor race-based competition in which teams (the “Teams”) compete for the Constructors’ Championship and drivers compete for the Drivers’ Championship. The World Championship, which has been held every year since 1950 and takes place on high profile iconic circuits, is a global series with a varying number of events (“Events”) taking place in different countries around the world each season. For 2018, 21 Events took place in 21 countries across Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and North and South America. In 2018, the World Championship was followed by hundreds of millions of television viewers in over 200 territories, and Formula 1’s

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largest Events have hosted live audiences in excess of 300,000 on race weekends. Formula 1 is responsible for the commercial exploitation and development of the World Championship, in the course of which it coordinates and transacts with the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile (“FIA”), the governing body for world motor sport, the Teams, the race promoters that stage Events, various media organizations worldwide as well as advertisers and sponsors. Formula 1 also performs activities related to critical components of the World Championship, including filming Events, production of the international television feed and transport of its and the Teams’ equipment, ensuring high quality and reducing delivery risk around the World Championship. Additionally, Formula 1, pursuant to other agreements with the FIA, holds the exclusive right to promote and commercially exploit F2 and F3 through 2041.

Formula 1 also generates revenue from a variety of other sources, including the operation of the Formula 1 Paddock Club hospitality program (the “Paddock Club”) at 18 Events, freight, logistical and travel related services for the Teams and other third parties, the F2 and F3 race series, which run principally as support races during Event weekends, various television production and post-production activities, digital and social media activities and revenue from other licensing of the commercial rights associated with the Formula 1 brand.

A significant majority of the race promotion, broadcasting and advertising and sponsorship contracts specify payments in advance and annual increases in the fees payable over the course of the contracts. Formula 1 recognizes the majority of its revenue and expenses in connection with Events that take place in different countries around the world throughout the year. The Events generally take place between March and November each year. As a result, the revenue and expenses recognized by Formula 1 are generally lower during the first quarter as compared to the rest of the quarters throughout the year.

Primary Revenue

Formula 1 derives its primary revenue from the commercial exploitation and development of the World Championship through a combination of entering into race promotion, broadcasting and advertising and sponsorship arrangements.

Race Promotion. Race promotion revenue comprised 33.8%, 34.1% and 36.4% of Formula 1’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Formula 1 grants to race promoters the rights to host, stage and promote each Event pursuant to contracts that typically have an initial term of three to seven years. For established Events, the duration of subsequent renewals is more variable according to local market conditions. These contracts may allow for flat fees over the term, but more typically they include annual fee escalators over the life of the contract, which are typically based on annual movement in a selected consumer price index or fixed percentages of up to 5% per year.

Race promoters are generally circuit owners, local and national automobile clubs, special event organizers or governmental bodies. Race promoters generate revenue from ticket sales and sometimes from concessions, secondary hospitality offerings (other than the Paddock Club), local sponsorship opportunities and on-site activations. Tickets are sold by the promoters for the entire Event weekend or individual days.

Broadcasting.  Broadcasting revenue comprised 33.1%, 33.7% and 32.7% of Formula 1’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Formula 1 licenses rights to broadcast Events on television and other media platforms in specified countries or regions and in specified languages. These may also include rights to broadcast the race, practice and qualifying sessions, interactive television/digital services, repeat broadcasts and highlights. These contracts, which we refer to as television rights agreements (“TRAs”), typically have a term of three to five years. While annual fees from broadcasters may stay constant, they often increase each year during the term of the TRA by varying amounts. Formula 1’s broadcasting revenue is generated from: (a) free-to-air television broadcasts, which are received by the end user without charge (other than any television license fee), and non-premium cable, satellite and other broadcasts, which are received as part of a subscriber’s basic package (together, “free-to-air television”); and (b) premium and pay-per-view cable and satellite broadcasts, where the subscriber pays a premium fee to receive programming on a package or per-event basis (“pay television”). In 2018, Formula 1 had 16 free-to-air television agreements, eight pay television agreements and 24 agreements, including multi-territory agreements, covering both free-to-air and pay television. Formula 1’s key broadcasters include Sky (pay television) in the United Kingdom, RTL (free-to-air television)

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in Germany, Sky Italia (pay television) in Italy, Movistar (pay television) in Spain, Fox Sports (pay television) in Pan Latin America, Canal+ (pay television) in France, Globo (free-to-air television) in Brazil, ESPN (pay television) in the United States, Fox Sports (pay television) in Pan Asia and beIn Sports (pay television) in the Middle East.

Advertising and Sponsorship. Advertising and sponsorship revenue comprised 14.6%, 15.3% and 14.6% of Formula 1’s total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Formula 1 sells Event-based advertising and sponsorship in the form of trackside advertising and race title sponsorship packages. In addition, advertisers can acquire status as a Global Partner of Formula 1 and/or Official Supplier to Formula 1. These advertiser and sponsor contracts typically have a term of three to five years (but may on occasion be of longer duration). Payments often increase each year based on a fixed amount, a fixed percentage or in accordance with the United States or European consumer price index or another agreed metric.

Other Revenue

The remainder of Formula 1’s revenue is generated from a variety of other sources including the operation of the Paddock Club race-based corporate hospitality program at most Events, freight and related logistical and travel services, support races at Events (either from the commercial exploitation of the F2 and F3 (formerly GP3) series or from the licensing of other third party series or individual race events), various television production and post-production activities, and other Formula 1 ancillary operations. Additionally, in 2018, Formula 1 launched F1TV Pro, a direct-to-consumer over-the-top broadcast product. Certain existing TRAs prevent F1TV Pro from being offered in the relevant territory, and the further global roll-out of the product will depend on the future renewal terms and/or negotiations of these TRAs.

FIA and the Teams

Formula 1’s business is built on a number of key relationships—those with the FIA, the Teams and Formula 1’s principal commercial partners. See “—Key Commercial Agreements” below for more information about Formula 1’s relationships with the FIA and the Teams.

FIA

The FIA is the governing body for world motor sport and as such, is solely responsible for regulating the sporting, technical and safety aspects of the World Championship, including race circuits to be used by race promotors, through the FIA’s F1 Commission and World Motor Sport Council. The FIA regulates all international motor sports, with the World Championship being the most prominent. The FIA owns the World Championship and has granted Formula 1 the exclusive commercial rights to the World Championship until the end of 2110 under the 100-Year Agreements. In addition, the FIA, through its World Motor Sport Council, approves the calendar for the World Championship each year based on the agreed race promotor contracts for the coming season. Under the 100-Year Agreements, Formula 1 is only permitted to enter into race promotion contracts that are substantially in the form agreed between Formula 1 and the FIA.

Teams

The Teams are the participants in the World Championship and its Events, competing for the annual Constructors’ Championship, and their drivers compete for the annual Drivers’ Championship. There were 10 Teams competing in the 2018 World Championship. To be eligible to compete, a Team is responsible for the design and manufacturing of certain key parts of its cars, including the chassis. Currently, the Teams are supplied race engines by one of Ferrari, Mercedes, Renault or Honda. Under the terms of the Current Concorde Arrangements (described below), Teams are entitled to receive significant team payments from a Formula 1 prize fund (the “Prize Fund”) based primarily on their results in prior years’ Constructors’ Championships. Formula 1 has no direct or indirect ownership interest in any Team, nor does it have any contractual arrangements with the drivers, who are all employed or contracted directly by the Teams. Each Team is responsible for securing its own drivers and funding the cost to race in the World Championship. They receive Team payments from Formula 1 (principally a share in the Prize Fund) as well as sponsorship and advertising revenue from their own partners. The Current Concorde Arrangements between Formula 1, the FIA and the Teams defines the terms of the Team’s participation in the World Championship (for further detail on these arrangements, see “—Key Commercial Agreements—Current Concorde Arrangements” below.)

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Drivers

One of the distinctive features of the World Championship is the celebrity and diversity of its drivers. Differences in nationalities, temperaments and racing styles form part of the attractive mosaic of Formula 1. The success of a local driver also impacts the television viewership and revenue generated from that country or region. High profile drivers from Germany (Vettel), the United Kingdom (Hamilton) and the Netherlands (Verstappen) have helped grow and sustain the Formula 1 business in those countries. For this reason, Formula 1 encourages the development of drivers from other strategic markets. F2 and F3 provide the training ground and stepping stones to Formula 1 for these drivers. All drivers are employed or contracted by the Teams and have no contractual relationship with Formula 1.

Key Commercial Agreements

100-Year Agreements

Under the 100-Year Agreements entered into by Formula 1 and the FIA in 2001, Formula 1 was granted an exclusive license with respect to all of the commercial rights to the World Championship, including its trademarks. This license, which took effect on January 1, 2011 and expires on December 31, 2110, maintains Formula 1’s exclusive commercial rights to the World Championship which Formula 1 held under previous agreements with the FIA.

The 100-Year Agreements also provide that Formula 1 may appoint a representative to the FIA, subject to the FIA’s approval, and that person will be a member of the FIA’s F1 Commission and World Motor Sport Council. The FIA may terminate the 100-Year Agreements and Formula 1’s exclusive license upon a change of control of Formula 1, unless either the FIA previously approved the transaction or the transaction falls within one of a number of exceptions. Formula 1 obtained the FIA’s approval of its acquisition by Liberty in January 2017 under the 100-Year Agreements.

In addition, the FIA may terminate Formula 1’s license if (i) certain Delta Topco subsidiaries party to the 100-Year Agreements become insolvent; (ii) Formula 1 fails to pay an amount due to the FIA and such non-payment is not cured within 30 days of FIA’s demand for payment; (iii) arbitrators declare that Formula 1 materially breached the 100-Year Agreements and Formula 1 has not paid to the FIA certain penalties to cure such breach; or (iv) Formula 1 changes or removes certain of the FIA’s rights without its prior consent.

Current Concorde Arrangements

From 1981 until 2012, successive Concorde Agreements governed the relationship between Formula 1, the FIA and the Teams, including the regulation of the World Championship. After the previous Concorde Agreement expired on December 31, 2012, Formula 1 entered into a separate binding agreement with each Team (the “Team Agreements”), securing the relevant Team’s commitment to continue participating in the World Championship until December 31, 2020. In addition, Formula 1 entered into the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement with the FIA in 2013. The 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement, in addition to making certain modifications to the 100-Year Agreements for the period to end 2030, provides that the FIA agrees to provide certain sporting governance arrangements and regulatory safeguards for the benefit of the Teams, to enter into a new Concorde Agreement for a term of eight years (from 2013 to 2020) reflecting those sporting governance arrangements and regulatory safeguards and to enter into a subsequent Concorde Agreement from 2021 to 2030 or to extend the sporting governance arrangements or regulatory safeguards agreed under the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement on substantially the same terms from 2021 to 2030. The Team Agreements and the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement (collectively, the “Current Concorde Arrangements”) together provide the contractual framework for the World Championship that was previously set out in the Concorde Agreements.

Under the Current Concorde Arrangements, among other things, the Teams agree to participate in the World Championship during the term of the Current Concorde Arrangements and Formula 1 agrees to make certain Prize Fund payments to them based on their performance in the Constructors’ Championship and other principles (such as success, heritage and longevity in Formula 1) and measures of performance selected by Formula 1.

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Team Agreements

As discussed above, Formula 1 and each of the Teams have entered into separate Team Agreements that establish a Prize Fund, establish procedures for setting the World Championship calendar, give the Teams the right to nominate and, in some cases, appoint directors to Delta Topco’s board, and provide for certain termination rights. The Team Agreements establish the Prize Fund to be paid to the Teams that is funded with a certain percentage of Formula 1’s Prize Fund Adjusted EBITDA (defined by Formula 1 as operating profit adjusted to exclude certain specific, and largely non-cash items) plus additional amounts that Formula 1 expects to range from $120 million to $175 million. The majority of the Prize Fund is paid to individual Teams based on their results in prior Constructors’ Championships, and the balance paid to Teams that have achieved certain milestones based on Formula 1’s principles and measures of performance. Under the Team Agreements, the consent of a majority of certain Teams is required if there are more than 20 Events in a season or more than 17 Events are held in a season and the number of Events that are held outside Europe, the US or Canada exceeds 60% or more of the total number of Events in that season.

The Team Agreements with McLaren and Mercedes grant the corporate parent of each of those Teams (McLaren Technology Group Limited and Daimler AG, respectively) the right to appoint a team director (a “Team Director”) until December 31, 2020 or the termination of the relevant Team Agreement, if earlier. Ferrari has an equivalent right, pursuant to a provision contained in all Team Agreements granting that right to the longest standing Team that has competed in the World Championship for the greatest number of seasons since 1950. Each of McLaren Technology Group Limited, Daimler AG and Ferrari has exercised the relevant right and appointed a Team Director. Ferrari’s Team Director is also entitled to be a member of Delta Topco’s Audit and Ethics and Nomination Committees. In addition, the Teams have certain consultation rights with respect to the appointment of two independent non-executive directors to Delta Topco’s board of directors, although Delta Topco does not require the consent of the Teams with respect to any such appointment.

A Team Agreement may be terminated if the Team ceases to be a constructor, fails to participate in more than three Events in a season, fails to submit a valid entry for participation in the World Championship or becomes insolvent. Teams may also terminate their Team Agreements by written notice to Formula 1 under certain circumstances, including:

·

Formula 1 is unable to pay its debts when they become due;

·

Formula 1 fails for three months to pay an aggregate amount due in excess of $10 million to the Team; or

·

a controlling interest holder of Formula 1 is subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control or is on the Financial Sanctions List in the United Kingdom.

Circuit Rights Agreements

Under circuit rights agreements (the “Circuit Rights Agreements”), Formula 1 acquires from race promoters certain rights to commercially exploit the Events, including the rights to sell trackside advertising and title sponsorship, a space in which to operate the Paddock Club (other than at three Events) and commercial use of the name of the Event and circuit. In a few cases a cash payment is made for the grant of these circuit rights and in others Formula 1 offers a commission or share of revenue to a race promoter where they have been instrumental in introducing a new sponsor from its territory that purchases a title sponsorship or trackside advertising. Circuit Rights Agreements typically have a term that is tied to the relevant race promoter contract.

Intellectual Property

Formula 1 is the registered owner of a portfolio of trade mark registrations and applications, including for the F1 logo, the World Championship logo (which is used only in sporting contexts), “Formula One”, “Formula 1”, “F1” and “Grand Prix” when used in connection with any of the aforementioned and most of the official Event titles where they are capable of registration.

Formula 1 owns the copyright on footage of each Event since 1981 as well as footage related to a large number of pre-1981 Events. Ownership of this copyright enables Formula 1 to license that footage to broadcasters and to take legal action against infringers of that copyright. Under the Current Concorde Arrangements, Formula 1 also has the exclusive

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right, subject to limited exceptions, to use each Team’s intellectual property rights (including image rights) to portray the World Championship and/or any Event in any visual form.

Licenses and Permits

Formula 1 is required to obtain permits for the allocation and use of radio frequencies which are necessary for the operation of live camera and other equipment used in the production of live television images and also in live radio communications used by Formula 1, the FIA, the Teams (including car to pit radio transmissions) and the emergency services. Such radio frequency permits are obtained by a dedicated unit in the television production team, with assistance from the local race promoter. Typically, such radio frequency permits are obtained from the relevant governmental authority responsible for licensing the use of radio frequencies in the host country of the relevant Event. The requirements and procedures for obtaining such permits vary by country and they may involve the completion of written formalities or the inspection by the relevant governmental authority of all equipment to be operated with a radio frequency. Permits are typically issued subject to conditions, which Formula 1 has generally been able to satisfy.

Strategy

Formula 1’s goal is to further broaden and increase the global scale and appeal of the World Championship in order to improve the overall value of Formula 1 as a sport and its financial performance. Key factors of this strategy include:

·

continuing to seek and identify opportunities to expand and develop the Event calendar and bring Events to attractive and/or strategically important new markets outside of Europe, which typically have higher race promotion fees, while continuing to build on the foundation of the sport in Europe;

·

developing advertising and sponsorship revenue, including increasing sales of Event-based packages and under the Global Partner program, and exploring opportunities in underexploited product categories;

·

capturing opportunities created by media’s evolution, including the growth of social media and the development of Formula 1’s digital media assets;

·

building up the entertainment experience for fans and engaging with new fans on a global basis to further drive race attendance and television viewership; and

·

working with stakeholders within the sport to improve the sustainability and on-track competitive balance of the World Championship and the long term financial stability of the participating Teams.

Braves Holdings, LLC

Braves Holdings (collectively with its subsidiaries) is the indirect owner and operator of the Major League Baseball (“MLB”) club, the Atlanta Braves, and certain assets and liabilities associated with the Braves’ stadium and Braves Holdings’ Development Project, The Battery Atlanta and as described in “Mixed-use development” below. We acquired the Braves from Time Warner, Inc. in 2007.

Business Operations

Braves Holdings derives revenue from both local and national sources. Team revenue includes revenue from ticket sales, broadcasting rights, shared revenue collected and distributed by MLB, merchandise sales, minor league teams, revenue sharing arrangements and other sources. Revenue related to the Braves’ facilities includes corporate sales and naming rights, concessions, advertising, suites and premium seat fees, parking and publications. Ticket sales and broadcasting rights are the team’s primary revenue drivers. Revenue is seasonal, with the majority of revenue recognized during the second and third quarters, which aligns with the baseball season. The Battery Atlanta derives revenue primarily from rental income (including overage rent and tenant reimbursements), parking and sponsorships throughout the year.

Television and Radio Broadcasting. Braves Holdings derives substantial revenue from the sale of broadcasting rights to the Braves’ baseball games. Each MLB club has the right to authorize the television broadcast within its home

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television territory of games in which it participates, subject to certain exceptions. The Braves have a long-term local broadcasting agreement with Sportsouth Network II, LLC, the owner and operator of the SportSouth video programming service (“Fox SportSouth”). Nationally, the Braves participate in the revenue generated from the national broadcasting and radio arrangements negotiated by MLB on behalf of the 30 MLB clubs with ESPN, TBS, Fox and SIRIUS XM (the “National Broadcast Rights”). Under the rules and regulations adopted by MLB, as well as a series of other agreements and arrangements that govern the operation and management of an MLB club (collectively, the “MLB Rules and Regulations”), the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball (the “BOC”) has the authority, acting as the agent on behalf of all of the MLB clubs, to enter into and administer all contracts for the sale of National Broadcast Rights. Each MLB club also has the right to authorize radio broadcast, within the United States (or Canada,  in the case of the Toronto Blue Jays), of its games, subject to certain restrictions. The Braves also have the second largest radio affiliate network in MLB, with approximately 140 local radio station affiliates broadcasting Braves games across the Southeast (the “Braves Radio Network”).

Ticket Sales. The Braves offer single game tickets, as well as various season ticket packages. The per-ticket average price of 2018 full-season ticket plans ranged from $5 to $358, depending upon the seating area. In 2012, the Braves instituted a variable pricing strategy to help eliminate the perceived difference in value for certain games, which was often exploited in the secondary market. The club created six pricing tiers per seat, based upon various factors including the day of the week, date and opposing team. The Braves have also begun to encourage fans to use digital ticketing, which allows the club to track important data, put parameters on resales, and provide paperless benefits to its consumers.

Advertising and Corporate Sponsorship. The Braves work with a variety of corporate sponsors to facilitate advertising and promotional opportunities at SunTrust Park. Advertising space is available on the main scoreboard, elsewhere throughout the ballpark and in programs sold at each game. The Braves also enter into long-term licensing agreements for advertising rights with respect to various suites and hospitality spaces. The Braves’ marketing department works closely with the club’s sponsors to offer contests, sweepstakes and additional entertainment and promotional opportunities during Braves home games, and the club allows the Braves name and logo to be used in connection with certain local promotional activities. The Braves also coordinate advertising placement through the Braves Radio Network, and has a cross-promotional sponsorship and marketing agreement with Fox SportSouth.

Player Contracts and Salaries. The Collective Bargaining Agreement (the “CBA”) requires MLB clubs to sign players using the Uniform Player’s Contract. The minimum Major League contract salary for players during the 2018 season under the CBA was $545,000. If a player is injured or terminated by the team for lack of skill during the regular season, he is entitled to all of his salary under the contract for the remainder of the year. Contracts may cover one year or multiple years, but generally under multi-year contracts a player’s salary is guaranteed even if the contract is terminated by the team, or if the player dies or becomes ill, during the term of the contract. The Braves are not required to pay the remaining contract salaries of players who resign or refuse to play.

Team

Player Personnel. Under MLB Rules and Regulations, each team is permitted to have 40 players under contract, but is allowed to maintain only 25 players on its active roster (subject to limited exceptions) from the Opening Day of the season through August 31 of each year. During the remainder of the season, teams may keep an active roster consisting of 40 players under contract. The Braves’ roster reflects the team’s commitment to developing and securing talented young players, driving future on-field success.

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Player Development. The Braves are associated with six minor league teams located in the United States, five of which are owned by Braves Holdings. The club’s minor league affiliates are detailed below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team

 

Class

 

League

 

Location

Gwinnett Stripers

 

AAA

 

International League

 

Lawrenceville, GA

Mississippi Braves

 

AA

 

Southern League

 

Pearl, MS

Florida Firefrogs*

 

A Adv.

 

Florida State League

 

Kissimmee, FL

Rome Braves

 

A

 

South Atlantic League

 

Rome, GA

Danville Braves

 

R

 

Appalachian League

 

Danville, VA

GCL Braves

 

R

 

Gulf Coast League

 

Lake Buena Vista, FL


* Not owned by Braves Holdings

The Braves also operate a baseball academy in the Dominican Republic under the Dominican Summer League. Dominican players, and players from other Latin American countries, are an important source of talent for the Braves and other MLB clubs, but these players may not participate in the first-year draft process (which is limited to only residents of the United States, United States territories, and Canada, including international players who are enrolled in a high school or college in such locations). However, the Braves may enter into contracts with Latin American players, subject to certain MLB Rules and Regulations.

Facilities

SunTrust Park. Effective for the 2017 season, the Braves relocated to a new ballpark in Cobb County, Georgia. Braves Holdings (or its affiliates) has exclusive operating rights to the facility via a 30-year Stadium Operating Agreement with Cobb County and the Cobb-Marietta Coliseum and Exhibit Hall Authority (the “Authority”). In 2014, Braves Holdings, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, purchased 82 acres of land for the purpose of constructing a MLB facility and development of a mixed-use complex adjacent to the ballpark. The total cost of the ballpark was approximately $722 million, of which approximately $392 million was funded by a combination of Cobb County, the Cumberland Improvement District and the Authority and approximately $330 million was funded by Braves Holdings. Funding for ballpark initiatives by Braves Holdings has come from cash on hand and various debt instruments, as detailed in note 10 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

We believe SunTrust Park is an industry-leading sports complex spanning approximately 1,100,000 square feet, with 41,200 seats, including 30 suites and 4,200 premium seats, multiple hospitality clubs and retail merchandise venues. The stadium also features concessions and restaurant spaces, administrative offices for team operations, sales and marketing, as well as a ticket office, team clubhouse and training rooms.

Champion Stadium. Champion Stadium in Lake Buena Vista, Florida is the Braves’ spring training facility, and the playing facility of the Braves’ Rookie League affiliate GCL Braves. The stadium is part of the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World Resort, and features four luxury sky boxes and more than 9,500 seats. The Braves signed a 20-year lease agreement for the complex in 1997, which will expire after the last day of spring training in 2019. The club receives limited use of the stadium, four practice fields, a half-sized infield, clubhouse, temporary clubhouse space for minor league players and office space for both year-round and spring training operations.

CoolToday Park. Effective in March 2019, the Braves will relocate to a new spring training facility in North Port, Florida. Braves Holdings has exclusive operating rights to the facility via a 30-year Facility Operating Agreement with Sarasota County. The club will operate and maintain an 8,200 capacity stadium and clubhouse facilities for major and minor league players and staff, six practice fields, a half-sized field, agility field and batting cages. The park will also feature an academy for housing players, coaches and staff throughout the year. The academy is expected to open in February 2020 and include dining, meeting and auditorium spaces.

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Mixed-Use Development

Braves Holdings, through affiliated entities and third party development partners, has developed a significant portion of the land around SunTrust Park for a mixed-use complex that features retail, residential, office, hotel and entertainment opportunities, known as The Battery Atlanta. Phase I of the project is complete and operational. Phase II is underway and will include developing a second parcel of land for additional mixed-use purposes. The estimated cost for Phase II is approximately $200 million, which Braves Holdings affiliated entities are expected to fund through a mix of approximately $55 million in equity and approximately $145 million of new debt. In October 2018, Braves Holdings sold the residential portion of the mixed-use complex, the proceeds from which are funding a portion of Phase II. See note 10 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for debt information related to the mixed-use development.

MLB Rules and Regulations

As the owner of a MLB franchise, Braves Holdings must comply with rules promulgated by the Commissioner of Baseball (the “Commissioner”) and MLB’s constitution and bylaws. Each franchise is required to share locally derived revenue with the other MLB franchises through MLB’s revenue sharing plan. Under MLB Rules and Regulations, each MLB franchise participates in the MLB Central Fund, which acts as a conduit of centrally derived revenue (primarily from National Broadcast Rights, national sponsorships and licensing deals, and the MLB All-Star Game) to the clubs, and funds certain expenses (such as contributions to the MLB Players Benefit Plan, administrative and operational expenses of the BOC, a reserve fund for the BOC, umpires expense and administrative expenses of the MLB Central Fund) on behalf of the MLB franchises. Each MLB franchise’s share of the MLB Central Fund is paid to each MLB franchise by the end of each year, unless otherwise determined by the Commissioner. Also under the MLB Rules and Regulations, each MLB franchise is required to participate in and contribute to certain profit sharing initiatives, such as MLB Advanced Media L.P., MLB’s interactive media and Internet company which runs MLB’s official website and all of the MLB teams’ websites.

Live Nation

Live Nation is considered the world’s leading live entertainment company and seeks to innovate and enhance the live entertainment experience for artists and fans before, during and after the show. Live Nation has three business segments: Concerts, Sponsorship & Advertising and Ticketing.

Live Nation’s Business Segments

Concerts. Live Nation’s Concerts segment principally involves the global promotion of live music events in its owned or operated venues and in rented third-party venues, the operation and management of music venues, the production of music festivals across the world, the creation of associated content and the provision of management and other services to artists. Including its intersegment revenue, Live Nation’s Concerts business generated approximately $8.8 billion, or approximately 81%, of Live Nation’s total revenue during 2018. Live Nation promoted almost 35,000 live music and other events in 2018, including artists such as Beyoncé and Jay-Z, P!nk, Kevin Hart, Justin Timberlake, Imagine Dragons and Bruno Mars and through festivals such as Austin City Limits, Lollapolooza, Electric Daisy Carnival, Rock Werchter, Reading and Download. While its Concerts segment operates year-round, Live Nation generally experiences higher revenue during the second and third quarters due to the seasonal nature of shows at its outdoor amphitheaters and festivals, which primarily occur from May through October. Revenue is generally impacted by the number of events, volume of ticket sales and ticket prices. Event costs such as artist fees and production service expenses are included in direct operating expenses and are typically substantial in relation to the revenue.

 

Sponsorship & Advertising. Live Nation’s Sponsorship & Advertising segment employs a sales force that creates and maintains relationships with sponsors, through a combination of strategic, international, national and local opportunities that allow businesses to reach customers through its concert, festival, venue, artist relationship and ticketing assets, including advertising on Live Nation websites. Live Nation works with its corporate clients to help create marketing programs that support their business goals and connect their brands directly with fans and artists. Live Nation also develops, books and produces custom events or programs for its clients’ specific brands, which are typically presented exclusively to the clients’ consumers. These custom events can involve live music events with talent and media, using both online and

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traditional outlets. Including its intersegment revenue, Live Nation’s Sponsorship & Advertising business generated $504 million, or approximately 5%, of Live Nation’s total revenue during 2018. Live Nation typically experiences higher revenue in the second and third quarters as a large portion of sponsorships are typically associated with its outdoor venues and festivals which are primarily used or occur from May through October.

Ticketing. Live Nation’s Ticketing segment is primarily an agency business that sells tickets for events on behalf of its clients and retains a fee, or service charge for these services. Live Nation sells tickets for its events and also for third-party clients across multiple live event categories, providing ticketing services for leading arenas, stadiums, amphitheaters, music clubs, concert promoters, professional sports franchises and leagues, college sports teams, performing arts venues, museums and theaters. Live Nation sells tickets through websites, mobile apps, ticket outlets and telephone call centers. During the year ended December 31, 2018, Live Nation sold 52%, 43%, 4% and 1% of primary tickets through these channels, respectively. Live Nation’s Ticketing segment also manages its online activities including enhancements to its websites and product offerings. Including its intersegment revenue, Live Nation’s Ticketing business generated approximately $1.5 billion, or approximately 14% of Live Nation’s total revenue during 2018, which excludes the face value of tickets sold and is net of the fees paid to its ticketing clients. Through all of its ticketing services, Live Nation sold 217 million tickets in 2018 on which Live Nation was paid fees for its services. In addition, approximately 265 million tickets were sold using Live Nation’s Ticketmaster systems, including through season seat packages, its venue clients’ box offices and other channels through which Live Nation does not receive a fee. Live Nation’s ticketing sales are impacted by fluctuations in the availability of events for sale to the public, which may vary depending upon event scheduling by its clients.

Terms of Live Nation Investment

At December 31, 2018, we beneficially owned approximately 69.6 million shares of Live Nation common stock, which represented approximately 33% of the issued and outstanding shares as of December 31, 2018.

Under our stockholders agreement with Live Nation, we have the right to nominate two directors (one of whom must qualify as an independent director) to the Live Nation board of directors, currently comprised of 12 directors, for so long as our ownership interest provides us with not less than 5% of the total voting power of Live Nation’s equity securities. We also have the right to cause one of our nominees to serve on the audit committee and the compensation committee of the board, provided they meet the independence and other qualifications for membership on those committees. Live Nation has waived the director independence requirement with respect to our nominees to the Live Nation board of directors, and we have waived our right to cause one of our nominees to serve on the audit and compensation committees of the board.

We have agreed under the stockholders agreement not to acquire beneficial ownership of Live Nation equity securities that would result in our having in excess of 35% of the voting power of Live Nation’s equity securities. That percentage is subject to decrease for specified transfers of our Live Nation stock. We have been exempted from the restrictions on business combinations set forth in Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, and Live Nation has agreed in the stockholders agreement not to take certain actions that would materially and adversely affect our ability to acquire Live Nation securities representing up to 35% of the voting power of Live Nation’s equity securities.

Other Minority Investments

We also own a portfolio of minority debt and equity investments in publicly traded media companies, including iHeart Media, Inc. and AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T). These are assets that were previously acquired (some in tax-efficient transactions) and are currently held as non-core assets. In the past we have entered into swaps, exchangeable debentures, and other derivatives to monetize these investments and mitigate balance sheet risk. We intend to continue to monetize these investments, which may include further derivative and structured transactions as well as public and private sales.

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Regulatory Matters

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services

As an operator of a privately owned satellite system, SIRIUS XM is regulated by the FCC under the Communications Act of 1934, principally with respect to:

·

the licensing of its satellite systems;

·

preventing interference with or to other users of radio frequencies; and

·

compliance with FCC rules established specifically for U.S. satellites and satellite radio services.

Any assignment or transfer of control of SIRIUS XM’s FCC licenses must be approved by the FCC. The FCC’s order approving the merger of SIRIUS XM’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Vernon Merger Corporation, with and into XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. in July 2008 requires SIRIUS XM to comply with certain voluntary commitments it made as part of the FCC merger proceeding. SIRIUS XM believes it complies with those commitments.

In 1997, SIRIUS XM was the winning bidder for FCC licenses to operate a satellite digital audio radio service and provide other ancillary services. SIRIUS XM’s FCC licenses for its Sirius satellites expire in 2022 and 2025. SIRIUS XM’s FCC licenses for its XM satellites expire in 2021, 2022 and 2026. The FCC has also granted SIRIUS XM licenses to construct, deploy and operate SXM-7 and SXM-8 as replacement satellites.  SIRIUS XM anticipates that, absent significant misconduct on its part, the FCC will renew its licenses to permit operation of its satellites for their useful lives, and grant licenses for any replacement satellites.

In some areas, SIRIUS XM has installed terrestrial repeaters to supplement its satellite signal coverage. The FCC has established rules governing terrestrial repeaters and has granted SIRIUS XM a license through 2027 to operate its repeater network.

In certain cases, SIRIUS XM obtains FCC certifications for satellite radios, including satellite radios that include FM modulators. SIRIUS XM believes its radios that are in production comply with all applicable FCC rules.

SIRIUS XM also is subject to a royalty rate established by the CRB and must negotiate royalty arrangements with musical works and sound recording rights holders.  See “Copyrights to Programming” above.

SIRIUS XM is required to obtain export licenses or other approvals from the United States government to export certain equipment, services and technical data related to its satellites and their operations. The transfer of such equipment, services and technical data outside the United States or to foreign persons is subject to strict export control and prior approval requirements from the United States government (including prohibitions on the sharing of certain satellite-related goods and services with China).

Changes in law or regulations relating to communications policy or to matters affecting SIRIUS XM’s services could adversely affect its ability to retain its FCC licenses or the manner in which SIRIUS XM operates.

Competition Laws and Formula 1

The operations and business of Formula 1 are subject to European and national competition laws which require Formula 1 at all times to ensure its business practices and agreements are consistent with the operation of competitive markets. Following an investigation by the European Commission (“EC”) into the commercialization of Formula 1 and related agreements in 1999, Formula 1 modified certain of its business practices and changed the terms of a number of its commercial contracts with Teams, broadcasters, promoters and the FIA. In October 2001, the EC issued two comfort letters to Formula 1 stating that it was no longer under investigation. Comfort letters are not binding on the EC and if it believes that there has been a material change in circumstances, further enforcement action could be taken. The EC issued a press release in October 2003 stating that it was satisfied that Formula 1 had complied with the modified practices and terms that had led to its issuing the 2001 comfort letters and that it had ended its monitoring of Formula 1’s compliance.

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Competition

SIRIUS XM faces significant competition for both listeners and advertisers in its satellite radio business, including from providers of radio and other audio services. SIRIUS XM’s services compete with traditional AM/FM radio. Traditional AM/FM radio has a well-established demand for its services and offers free broadcasts paid for by commercial advertising rather than by subscription fees. Many radio stations offer information programming of a local nature, such as local news and sports. The availability of traditional free AM/FM radio may reduce the likelihood that customers would be willing to pay for SIRIUS XM’s subscription services and, by offering free broadcasts, it may impose limits on what SIRIUS XM can charge for its services. Several traditional radio companies own large numbers of radio stations or other media properties. SIRIUS XM also faces competition from Internet-based competitors. Internet radio services often have no geographic limitations and provide listeners with radio programming from across the country and around the world. Major online providers make high fidelity digital streams available through the Internet for free or, in some cases, for less than the cost of a satellite radio subscription. Certain of these services include advanced functionality, such as personalization, and allow the user to access large libraries of content. For some consumers, these services may compete with SIRIUS XM’s services, at home, in vehicles, and wherever audio entertainment is consumed. In addition, nearly all automakers have deployed integrated multimedia systems in their vehicles, including in many cases Apple CarPlay and Android Auto. These systems combine control of audio entertainment from a variety of sources, including AM/FM/HD radio broadcasts, satellite radio, Internet radio, smartphone applications and stored audio, with navigation and other advanced applications. Internet radio and other data are typically connected to the system through an Internet-enabled smartphone or wireless modem installed in the vehicle, and the entire system may be controlled by touchscreen or voice recognition. These systems may enhance the attractiveness of Internet-based competitors by making such applications more prominent, easier to access, and safer to use in vehicles. SIRIUS XM also faces competition from a number of providers that offer specialized audio services through either direct broadcast satellite or cable audio systems. These services are targeted to fixed locations, mostly in-home. The radio service offered by direct broadcast satellite and cable audio is often included as part of a package of digital services with video service, and video customers generally do not pay an additional monthly charge for the audio service. In addition, the audio entertainment marketplace continues to evolve rapidly, with a steady emergence of new media platforms that compete with SIRIUS XM’s services now or that could compete with those services in the future. A number of providers compete with SIRIUS XM’s traffic services. In-dash navigation is threatened by smartphones that provide data services through a direct vehicle interface. Most of these smartphones offer GPS mapping with sophisticated data-based turn-by-turn navigation. SIRIUS XM’s connected vehicle services business operates in a highly competitive environment and competes with several providers, including Verizon Telematics, as well as products being developed by automakers for their vehicles. OnStar, a division of General Motors (“GM”), also offers connected vehicle services in GM vehicles. Sirius XM also competes with wireless devices such as mobile phones. SIRIUS XM competes against other connected vehicle service providers for automaker arrangements on the basis of innovation, service quality and reliability, technical capabilities and systems customization, scope of service, industry experience, past performance and price.

With respect to Formula 1, the World Championship competes with many alternative forms of entertainment, such as other sporting and live events, for television viewership, live attendance and advertising. For example, Formula 1 competes for broadcasting and advertising revenue with other global and regional Tier 1 sports, including the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, Champions League and Premier League. Within national markets, Formula 1 competes with local racing events, such as the Indianapolis 500 race and NASCAR in the United States.

Braves Holdings faces competition from many alternative forms of leisure entertainment. During the baseball season, Braves Holdings competes with other sporting and live events for game day attendance, which is integral to Braves Holdings’ ticket, concession and merchandise sales revenue. The broadcasting of the Atlanta Braves’ games, which is another significant source of revenue for Braves Holdings, competes against a multitude of other media options for viewers, including premium programming, home video, pay-per-view services, subscription video on-demand services, online activities, movies and other forms of news and information. In addition, Braves Holdings competes with the other MLB teams for a limited pool of player, coaching and managerial talent. This talent contributes to the Atlanta Braves’ record and league standings, which are critical components of Braves Holdings’ competitiveness.

Live Nation faces competition in the live music industry, in attracting touring artists to the venues it owns and operates and from ticketing services primarily through online channels but also through phone, outlet and box office

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channels. Competition in the live entertainment industry is intense. Live Nation believes that it competes primarily on the basis of its ability to deliver quality music events, sell tickets and provide enhanced fan and artist experiences. It believes that its primary strengths include the quality of service delivered to its artists, fans, ticketing clients and corporate sponsors, its track record in promoting and producing live music events and tours both domestically and internationally, artist relationships, its global footprint, ticketing software and services, its ecommerce site and associated database, diverse distribution platform (venues), the scope and effectiveness in its expertise of advertising and sponsorship programs and its financial stability.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we had 86 corporate employees, and our consolidated subsidiaries had an aggregate of approximately 4,555 full and part-time employees. We believe that our employee relations are good.

Available Information

All of our filings with the SEC, including our Form 10‑Ks, Form 10‑Qs and Form 8‑Ks, as well as amendments to such filings are available on our Internet website free of charge generally within 24 hours after we file such material with the SEC. Our website address is www.libertymedia.com.

Our corporate governance guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, compensation committee charter, nominating and corporate governance committee charter, and audit committee charter are available on our website. In addition, we will provide a copy of any of these documents, free of charge, to any shareholder who calls or submits a request in writing to Investor Relations, Liberty Media Corporation, 12300 Liberty Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado 80112, Tel. No. (877) 772‑1518.

The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference herein.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our common stock involves risk. Before investing in our common stock, in addition to the other information described in Item 7 (“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”) of Part II,” you should carefully consider the following risks. Such risks are not the only ones that relate to our businesses and capitalization. The risks described below are considered to be the most material. However, there may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that also could have material adverse effects on our businesses. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of the events described below or in the documents incorporated by reference herein were to occur, our businesses, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on the value of our common stock.

Risks Relating to our Company, as a Whole

The historical financial information of the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group included in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K may not necessarily reflect their results had they been separate companies.

One of the reasons for the creation of a tracking stock is to permit equity investors to apply more specific criteria in valuing the shares of a particular group, such as comparisons of earnings multiples with those of other companies in the same business sector. In valuing shares of Liberty SiriusXM Group tracking stock, Braves Group tracking stock and Formula One Group tracking stock, investors should recognize that the historical financial information of the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group has been extracted from our consolidated financial statements and may not necessarily reflect what the Liberty SiriusXM Group’s, the Braves Group’s and the Formula One Group’s results of operations, financial condition and cash flows would have been had each of these groups been separate, stand-alone entities pursuing independent strategies during the periods presented.

We may have future capital needs and may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms.

At December 31, 2018, our only wholly owned consolidated subsidiaries are Braves Holdings and Formula 1. Braves Holdings, due to its size and nature, together with its assets and operating cash flow, would be insufficient to support any significant financing in the future. Our ability to access the cash flow of Formula 1 is subject to covenant restrictions set forth in the debt instruments of certain subsidiaries of Delta Topco. In addition, although we consolidate SIRIUS XM, we do not have ready access to the cash flow of SIRIUS XM due to SIRIUS XM being a separate public company and the presence of a significant non-controlling interest. Accordingly, our ability to obtain significant financing in the future, on favorable terms or at all, may be limited. If debt financing is not available to us in the future, we may obtain liquidity through the sale or monetization of our debt or equity securities, or we may issue equity securities. If additional funds are raised through the issuance of equity securities, our stockholders may experience significant dilution. If we are unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the future, we may be unable to develop our businesses properly, complete acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and those attributed to our groups.

A substantial portion of our consolidated debt is held above the operating subsidiary level, and we could be unable in the future to obtain cash in amounts sufficient to service that debt and our other financial obligations.

As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $3.1 billion principal amount of corporate-level debt outstanding, consisting of $1 billion outstanding under our 1.375% cash convertible senior notes due 2023, $450 million outstanding under our 1% cash convertible senior notes due 2023, $213 million outstanding under our 2.25% exchangeable senior debentures due 2046, $400 million outstanding under our 2.125% exchangeable senior debentures due 2048, $385 million outstanding under our 2.25% exchangeable senior debentures due 2048, $33 million of other obligations and $600 million outstanding under a margin loan obligation incurred by our wholly owned special purpose subsidiary attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group. Our ability to meet our financial obligations will depend on our ability to access cash. Our primary sources of cash include our available cash balances, dividends and interest from our investments,

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monetization of our public investment portfolio and proceeds from asset sales. Further, our ability to receive dividends or payments or advances from our businesses depends on their individual operating results, any statutory, regulatory or contractual restrictions to which they may be or may become subject and the terms of their own indebtedness, including SIRIUS XM’s senior notes and credit facility and Formula 1’s subsidiary debt. The agreements governing such indebtedness restrict sales of assets and prohibit or limit the payment of dividends or the making of distributions, loans or advances to stockholders, non-wholly owned subsidiaries or our partners. We generally do not receive cash, in the form of dividends (other than quarterly dividends generally payable to SIRIUS XM stockholders pursuant to SIRIUS XM’s dividend policy, which is subject to change at any time and is at the discretion of SIRIUS XM’s board of directors in accordance with applicable law and after taking into account various factors affecting SIRIUS XM), loans, advances or otherwise, from any of our subsidiaries or business affiliates.

The success of businesses attributed to each of our tracking stock groups, in part, depends on their popularity with audiences, which is difficult to predict.

Entertainment content production, satellite radio services and live entertainment events, including sporting events, are inherently risky businesses because the revenue derived from these businesses depends primarily upon their popularity with public audiences, which is difficult to predict. The commercial success of a satellite radio program or live entertainment depends upon the quality and acceptance of competing programs, the availability of alternative forms of entertainment and leisure time activities, general economic conditions and other tangible and intangible factors, many of which are difficult to predict. In the case of ad-supported programming, events and satellite radio service, audience size is an important factor when advertising rates are negotiated. Audience size is also an important factor when determining ticket pricing for live entertainment events and the value of broadcast rights. Consequently, low public acceptance of the programs, services and events provided by companies such as SIRIUS XM, Braves Holdings, Live Nation and Formula 1 could hurt the ability of these companies to maintain or grow revenue, which would adversely impact the financial performance of the groups to which these companies are attributed.

Our businesses attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group and the Formula One Group, such as SIRIUS XM, Formula 1 and Live Nation, may not realize the benefits of acquisitions or other strategic investments and initiatives.

Our business strategy and that of our subsidiaries and business affiliates, including SIRIUS XM, Formula 1 and Live Nation, may include selective acquisitions, other strategic investments and initiatives that allow them to expand their business. The success of any acquisition depends upon effective integration and management of acquired businesses and assets into the acquirer’s operations, which is subject to risks and uncertainties, including the realization of the growth potential, any anticipated synergies and cost savings, the ability to retain and attract personnel, the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns, and undisclosed or potential legal liabilities of acquired businesses or assets.

Weak economic conditions may reduce consumer demand for products, services and events offered by our businesses attributed to each of our groups.

A weak economy in the United States or, in the case of the Formula One Group, abroad, could adversely affect demand for our products, services and events. A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from discretionary spending by individuals, which typically falls during times of economic instability. A reduction in discretionary spending could adversely affect revenue through potential downgrades by satellite radio subscribers and could overall affect subscriber churn, conversion rates and vehicle sales (in the case of SIRIUS XM) or reduced live-entertainment and sporting event expenditures (in the case of Live Nation, Braves Holdings and Formula 1). Accordingly, the ability of our businesses attributed to each of our groups to increase or maintain revenue and earnings could be adversely affected to the extent that relevant economic environments remain weak or decline further. We currently are unable to predict the extent of any of these potential adverse effects.

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Our Company has overlapping directors and management with Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. (“TripCo”), Liberty Expedia Holdings, Inc. (“Expedia Holdings”) and GCI Liberty, Inc. (“GCI Liberty”), which may lead to conflicting interests.

As a result of transactions between 2011 and 2018 that resulted in the separate corporate existence of our Company, Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings, and GCI Liberty, most of the executive officers of Liberty also serve as executive officers of Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings and GCI Liberty, and there are overlapping directors. Other than GCI Libertys current ownership of shares of Liberty Broadbands non-voting Series C common stock, none of these companies has any ownership interest in any of the others. Our executive officers and members of our Companys board of directors have fiduciary duties to our stockholders. Likewise, any such persons who serve in similar capacities at Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings or GCI Liberty have fiduciary duties to that companys stockholders. For example, there may be the potential for a conflict of interest when our Company, Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings or GCI Liberty pursues acquisitions and other business opportunities that may be suitable for each of them. Therefore, such persons may have conflicts of interest or the appearance of conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting more than one of the companies to which they owe fiduciary duties. Moreover, most of our Companys directors and officers continue to own Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings and GCI Liberty stock and options to purchase stock in those companies. These ownership interests could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when the applicable individuals are faced with decisions that could have different implications for our Company, Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings and/or GCI Liberty. Any potential conflict that qualifies as a “related party transaction”  (as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S‑K under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) is subject to review by an independent committee of the applicable issuers board of directors in accordance with its corporate governance guidelines. Each of Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings and GCI Liberty has renounced its rights to certain business opportunities and their respective restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions deeming directors and officers not in breach of their fiduciary duties in certain cases for directing a corporate opportunity to another person or entity (including Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings and GCI Liberty) instead of such company. Any other potential conflicts that arise will be addressed on a case-by-case basis, keeping in mind the applicable fiduciary duties owed by the executive officers and directors of each issuer. From time to time, we may enter into transactions with Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings, GCI Liberty and/or their subsidiaries or other affiliates. There can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to our Company, Qurate Retail, Liberty Broadband, TripCo, Expedia Holdings, GCI Liberty or any of their respective subsidiaries or affiliates as would be the case where there is no overlapping officer or director.

The unfavorable outcome of pending or future litigation could have a material adverse impact on the operations and financial condition of businesses attributed to each of our groups.

Our subsidiaries and business affiliates are parties to several legal proceedings arising out of various aspects of their businesses, including class actions arising out of their marketing practices. The outcome of these proceedings may not be favorable, and one or more unfavorable outcomes could have a material adverse impact on their financial condition, which can impact the financial performance of the group to which they are attributed.

Certain of our subsidiaries and business affiliates have operations outside of the United States that are subject to numerous operational risks.

Certain of our subsidiaries and business affiliates have operations in countries other than the United States. In many foreign countries, particularly in certain developing economies, it is not uncommon to encounter business practices that are prohibited by certain regulations, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar laws. Although certain of our subsidiaries and business affiliates have undertaken compliance efforts with respect to these laws, their respective employees, contractors and agents, as well as those companies to which they outsource certain of their business operations, may take actions in violation of their policies and procedures. Any such violation, even if prohibited by the policies and procedures of these subsidiaries and business affiliates or the law, could have certain adverse effects on the financial condition of these subsidiaries and business affiliates. Any failure by these subsidiaries and business affiliates to effectively manage the challenges associated with the international operation of their businesses could materially adversely affect their, and hence our, financial condition.

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Risks Relating to the Liberty SiriusXM Group

SIRIUS XM faces substantial competition and that competition is likely to increase over time.

SIRIUS XM faces substantial competition from other providers of radio and audio services. SIRIUS XM’s ability to attract and retain subscribers depends on its success in creating and providing popular or unique music, entertainment, news and sports programming. SIRIUS XM’s subscribers can obtain certain similar content for free through terrestrial radio stations, Internet radio services and Internet streaming services. Audio content delivered via the Internet, including through mobile devices that are easily integrated in vehicles, is increasingly competitive with its services. A summary of various services that compete with SIRIUS XM is contained in the section entitled “Item 1. Business-Competition” of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Competition could result in lower subscription, advertising or other revenue and an increase in SIRIUS XM’s marketing, promotion or other expenses and, consequently, lower its earnings and free cash flow. SIRIUS XM cannot assure you it will be able to compete successfully with its existing or future competitors or that competition will not have a material adverse impact on its operations and financial condition.

SIRIUS XM’s ability to retain subscribers or increase the number of subscribers is uncertain.

SIRIUS XM’s ability to retain its subscribers, or increase the number of subscribers to its service, is uncertain and subject to many factors, including:

·

the price of SIRIUS XM’s service;

·

the health of the economy;

·

the sale or lease rate of new vehicles in the United States;

·

the rate at which SIRIUS XM’s self-pay subscribers buy and sell new and used vehicles in the United States;

·

SIRIUS XM’s ability to convince owners and lessees of new and used vehicles that include satellite radios to purchase subscriptions to its service;

·

the effectiveness of SIRIUS XM’s marketing programs;

·

the entertainment value of SIRIUS XM’s programming and the packages it offers;

·

SIRIUS XM’s ability to respond to evolving consumer tastes; and

·

actions by SIRIUS XM’s competitors, such as other audio entertainment and information providers.

As part of its business, SIRIUS XM experiences, and expects to experience in the future, subscriber turnover (i.e., churn).

If SIRIUS XM is unable to retain current subscribers at expected rates, or the costs of retaining subscribers are higher than expected, its financial performance and operating results could be adversely affected. SIRIUS XM cannot predict how successful it will be at retaining customers who purchase or lease vehicles that include a subscription to its satellite radio service. A substantial portion of SIRIUS XM’s subscribers are on discounted pricing plans and SIRIUS XM’s ability to retain these subscribers or migrate them to higher priced plans is uncertain. A substantial number of those subscribers periodically cancel their subscriptions when offered a subscription at a higher price.

SIRIUS XM’s profitability could be adversely affected if it is unable to consistently attract new subscribers and retain its current subscribers at prices and margins consistent with its past performance.

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SIRIUS XM’s ability to profitably attract and retain subscribers as its marketing efforts reach more price sensitive consumers is uncertain.

SIRIUS XM’s efforts to acquire subscribers purchasing or leasing used vehicles may attract subscribers of more limited economic means. For example, consumers purchasing or leasing used vehicles may be more price sensitive than consumers purchasing or leasing new vehicles, may convert from trial subscribers to self-paying subscribers at a lower rate, and may cancel their subscriptions more frequently than consumers purchasing or leasing new vehicles. Some of SIRIUS XM’s marketing efforts may also attract more price sensitive subscribers; and SIRIUS XM’s efforts to increase the penetration of satellite radios in new, lower-priced vehicle lines may result in the growth of more economy-minded subscribers. In addition, over time the changing demographics of SIRIUS XM’s subscriber base, such as the expected increase in customers from the “millennial generation,” may increase the number of subscribers accustomed to consuming entertainment through free products.

If SIRIUS XM fails to protect the security of personal information about its customers, SIRIUS XM could be subject to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and its reputation could suffer.

The nature of SIRIUS XM’s business involves the receipt and storage of personal information about its subscribers including, in many cases, credit and debit card information. If SIRIUS XM fails to protect the security of personal information about its customers or if SIRIUS XM experiences a significant data security breach, SIRIUS XM could be exposed to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and its reputation could suffer. In addition, SIRIUS XM’s subscribers and potential customers could lose confidence in SIRIUS XM’s ability to protect their personal information, which could cause them to discontinue usage of SIRIUS XM’s services. Such events could lead to lost future sales and adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s results of operations.

SIRIUS XM has a program in place to detect and respond to data security incidents. However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, SIRIUS XM may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures. In addition, hardware, software, or applications SIRIUS XM develops or procures from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to SIRIUS XM’s systems or facilities, or those of third parties with whom SIRIUS XM does business, through fraud, trickery, or other forms of deceiving SIRIUS XM’s employees, contractors or other agents.

If hackers were able to circumvent SIRIUS XM’s security measures, a release of proprietary information or personal information could occur or SIRIUS XM could experience significant disruptions. If SIRIUS XM’s systems become unavailable or suffer a security breach, SIRIUS XM may be required to expend significant resources to address these problems, including notification under various data privacy regulations, and SIRIUS XM’s reputation and operating results could suffer. To SIRIUS XM’s knowledge, it has not suffered a release of any proprietary information or personal information that is material to its operations or brand.

SIRIUS XM’s service may experience harmful interference from new wireless operations.

The development of new applications and services in spectrum adjacent to the frequencies licensed to SIRIUS XM, as well as the combination of signals in other frequencies, may cause harmful interference to SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio service in certain areas of the United States. Certain operations or combination of operations permitted by the FCC in spectrum, other than SIRIUS XM’s licensed frequencies, results in the loss of signal to SIRIUS XM’s service, and the reception of SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio service can be adversely affected in certain areas. Elimination of this interference may not be possible in all cases. In other cases, SIRIUS XM’s efforts to reduce this interference may require extensive engineering efforts and additions to its terrestrial infrastructure. These mitigation efforts may be costly and take several years to implement and may not be entirely effective. In certain cases, SIRIUS XM is dependent on the FCC to assist it in preventing harmful interference to its service.

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SIRIUS XM engages in extensive marketing efforts and the continued effectiveness of those efforts are an important part of its business.

SIRIUS XM engages in extensive marketing efforts across a broad range of media to attract and retain subscribers to its services. SIRIUS XM employs a wide variety of communications tools as part of its marketing campaigns, including telemarketing efforts and email solicitations. The effectiveness of its marketing efforts is affected by a broad range of factors, including creative and execution factors. SIRIUS XM’s ability to reach consumers with radio and television advertising, direct mail materials, email solicitations and telephone calls is an important part of its efforts and a significant factor in the effectiveness of its marketing. If SIRIUS XM is unable to reach consumers through email solicitations or telemarketing, including as a result of “spam” and email filters or call blocking technologies, its marketing efforts will be adversely affected. A decline in the effectiveness of its marketing efforts could have a material adverse impact on its operations and financial condition.

Consumer protection laws and their enforcement could damage SIRIUS XM’s business.

Consumer protection laws cover nearly all aspects of SIRIUS XM’s marketing efforts, including the content of its advertising, the terms of consumer offers and the manner in which SIRIUS XM communicates with subscribers and prospective subscribers. The nature of SIRIUS XM’s business requires it to expend significant resources to try to ensure that its marketing activities comply with federal and state laws, rules and regulations relating to consumer protection, including laws relating to telemarketing activities and privacy. There can be no assurance that these efforts will be successful or that SIRIUS XM will not have to expend even greater resources in its compliance efforts.

Modifications to federal and state laws, rules and regulations concerning consumer protection, including decisions by federal and state courts and agencies interpreting these laws, could have an adverse impact on SIRIUS XM’s ability to attract and retain subscribers to its services. There can be no assurance that new laws or regulations will not be enacted or adopted, preexisting laws or regulations will not be more strictly enforced or that SIRIUS XM’s varied operations will comply with all applicable laws, which could have a material adverse impact on its operations and financial condition.

SIRIUS XM may not realize the benefits of acquisitions or other strategic investments and initiatives, including the acquisition of Pandora.

SIRIUS XM’s business strategy includes selective acquisitions, other strategic investments and initiatives that allow it to expand its business. The success of any acquisition, including the acquisition of Pandora, depends upon effective integration and management of acquired businesses and assets into its operations, which is subject to risks and uncertainties, including realizing the growth potential, the anticipated synergies and cost savings, the ability to retain and attract personnel, the diversion of management’s attention for other business concerns, and undisclosed or potential legal liabilities of the acquired business or assets.

The acquisition of Pandora involves the combination of two entities which currently operate as independent

companies. SIRIUS XM will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrate the businesses and operations of Pandora. Potential difficulties SIRIUS XM may encounter in the integration process include:

 

·

the inability to successfully combine its business and the business of Pandora in a manner that permits SIRIUS XM to offer cross-promotion opportunities, audio packages that integrate SIRIUS XM’s content and programming with Pandora’s ad-supported and subscription services and achieve other benefits anticipated to result from the acquisition, in the time frame currently anticipated or at all;

·

the complexities associated with integrating personnel from the two companies and of combining two companies with different histories, cultures and customer bases;

·

SIRIUS XM’s failure to retain key employees;

·

potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses associated with the acquisition; and

·

performance shortfalls at one or both of the two companies as a result of the diversion of management’s attention in connection with completing the acquisition and integrating the companies’ operations.

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It is possible that the integration process could result in the distraction of SIRIUS XM’s management, the disruption of its ongoing business or inconsistencies in its services, standards, controls, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s ability to maintain relationships with customers, vendors and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transactions, or could otherwise adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s business and financial results following the closing of the acquisition.

 

The unfavorable outcome of pending or future litigation could have a material adverse impact on SIRIUS XM’s operations and financial condition.

SIRIUS XM is party to several legal proceedings arising out of various aspects of its business, including class actions arising out of its marketing practices and subscription plans. The outcome of these proceedings may not be favorable, and one or more unfavorable outcomes could have a material adverse impact on SIRIUS XM’s financial condition.

The market for music rights is changing and is subject to significant uncertainties.

SIRIUS XM must maintain music programming royalty arrangements with, and pay license fees to, owners of rights in musical works. Traditionally, BMI,  ASCAP and SESAC have negotiated for these copyright users, collected royalties and distributed them to songwriters and music publishers. These traditional arrangements are changing. Owners of rights in musical works have withdrawn from BMI, ASCAP and SESAC and new entities, such as GMR, have been formed to represent owners of musical works. The fracturing of the traditional system for licensing rights in musical works may have significant consequences to SIRIUS XM’s business, including increasing licensing costs and reducing the availability of certain pieces for use on SIRIUS XM’s services.

Under the United States Copyright Act, SIRIUS XM also must pay royalties to copyright owners of sound recordings. Those royalty rates may be established through negotiation or, if negotiation is unsuccessful, by the CRB. Owners of copyrights in sound recordings have created SoundExchange, a collective organization, to collect and distribute royalties. SoundExchange is exempt by statute from certain U.S. antitrust laws and exercises significant market power in the licensing of sound recordings. Under the terms of the CRB’s December 2017 decision governing sound recording royalties for satellite radio, SIRIUS XM is required to pay a royalty based on its gross revenue, subject to certain exclusions, of 15.5% per year for each of the next nine years. This is a substantial increase over the royalty rate of 11% of SIRIUS XM’s gross revenue that it paid in 2017.

SIRIUS XM’s business depends in large part upon the auto industry.

A substantial portion of SIRIUS XM’s subscription growth has come from purchasers and lessees of new and used automobiles in the United States. The sale and lease of vehicles with satellite radios is an important source of subscribers for SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio service. SIRIUS XM has agreements with every major automaker to include satellite radios in new vehicles, although these agreements do not require automakers to install specific or minimum quantities of radios in any given period.

Automotive production and sales are dependent on many factors, including the availability of consumer credit, general economic conditions, consumer confidence and fuel costs. To the extent vehicle sales by automakers decline, or the penetration of factory-installed satellite radios in those vehicles is reduced, subscriber growth for SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio services may be adversely impacted.

Sales of previously owned vehicles represent a significant source of new subscribers for SIRIUS XM. SIRIUS XM has agreements with auto dealers and companies operating in the used vehicle market to provide SIRIUS XM with data on sales of used satellite radio enabled vehicles. The continuing availability of this information is important to SIRIUS XM’s future growth.

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General economic conditions can affect SIRIUS XM’s business.

The purchase of a satellite radio subscription is discretionary, and SIRIUS XM’s business and its financial condition can be negatively affected by general economic conditions. Poor general economic conditions could adversely affect subscriber churn, conversion rates and vehicle sales.

Existing or future laws and regulations could harm SIRIUS XM’s business.

SIRIUS XM is subject to many laws, including federal, state, local and foreign laws. These laws and regulations cover issues such as user privacy, behavioral advertising, automatic renewal of agreements, pricing, fraud, electronic waste, mobile and electronic device communications, quality of products and services, taxation, advertising, intellectual property rights and information security. The expansion of these laws, both in terms of their number and their applicability, could harm SIRIUS XM’s business.

Failure of SIRIUS XM’s satellites would significantly damage its business.

The lives of SIRIUS XM’s satellites vary depending on a number of factors, including:

·

degradation and durability of solar panels;

·

quality of construction;

·

random failure of satellite components, which could result in significant damage to or loss of a satellite;

·

amount of fuel the satellite consumes; and

·

damage or destruction as a result of electrostatic storms, terrorist attacks, collisions with other objects in space or other events, such as nuclear detonations, occurring in space.

In the ordinary course of operation, satellites experience failures of component parts and operational and performance anomalies. Components on SIRIUS XM’s in-orbit satellites have failed; and from time to time SIRIUS XM has experienced anomalies in the operation and performance of these satellites. These failures and anomalies are expected to continue in the ordinary course, and SIRIUS XM cannot predict if any of these possible future events will have a material adverse effect on SIRIUS XM’s operations or the life of SIRIUS XM’s existing in-orbit satellites. In addition, SIRIUS XM’s Sirius network of terrestrial repeaters communicates with a single third-party satellite. SIRIUS XM’s XM network of terrestrial repeaters communicates with a single XM satellite. If the satellites communicating with the applicable repeater network fail unexpectedly, the services would be disrupted for several hours or longer.

Any material failure of SIRIUS XM’s satellites could cause SIRIUS XM to lose customers and could materially harm its reputation and its operating results. SIRIUS XM holds no in-orbit insurance for its satellites. Additional information regarding SIRIUS XM’s fleet of satellites is contained in the section entitled “Item 1. Business—SIRIUS XM—Satellites, Terrestrial Repeaters and Other Satellite Facilities” of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Interruption or failure of SIRIUS XM’s information technology and communications systems could negatively impact SIRIUS XM’s results and SIRIUS XM’s brand.

SIRIUS XM operates a complex and growing business. SIRIUS XM offers a wide variety of subscription packages at different price points. SIRIUS XM’s business is dependent on the operation and availability of its information technology and communication systems and those of certain third party service providers. Any degradation in the quality, or any failure, of SIRIUS XM’s systems could reduce SIRIUS XM’s revenue, cause SIRIUS XM to lose customers and damage SIRIUS XM’s brand. Although SIRIUS XM has implemented practices designed to maintain the availability of its information technology systems it relies on and mitigate the harm of any unplanned interruptions, SIRIUS XM cannot anticipate all eventualities. SIRIUS XM occasionally experiences unplanned outages or technical difficulties. SIRIUS XM could also experience loss of data or processing capabilities, which could cause SIRIUS XM to lose customers and could materially harm SIRIUS XM’s reputation and SIRIUS XM’s operating results.

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SIRIUS XM relies on internal systems and external systems maintained by manufacturers, distributors and service providers to take, fulfill and handle customer service requests and host certain online activities. Any interruption or failure of SIRIUS XM’s internal or external systems could prevent SIRIUS XM from servicing customers or cause data to be unintentionally disclosed.

SIRIUS XM’s data centers and SIRIUS XM’s information technology and communications systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, malicious attacks, fire, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses or other attempts to harm SIRIUS XM’s systems.

Damage or interruption to SIRIUS XM’s data centers and information technology and communications centers could expose it to data loss or manipulation, disruption of service, monetary and reputational damages, competitive disadvantage and significant increases in compliance costs and costs to improve the security and resiliency of its computer systems. The compromise of personal, confidential or proprietary information could also subject SIRIUS XM to legal liability or regulatory action under evolving cyber-security, data protection and privacy laws and regulations enacted by the U.S. federal and state governments or other foreign jurisdictions or by various regulatory organizations. As a result, SIRIUS XM’s ability to conduct its business and its results of operations might be materially and adversely affected.

Rapid technological and industry changes and new entrants could adversely impact SIRIUS XM’s services.

The audio entertainment industry is characterized by rapid technological change, frequent product innovations, changes in customer requirements and expectations, evolving standards and new entrants offering products and services. If SIRIUS XM is unable to keep pace with these changes, SIRIUS XM’s business may not succeed. Products using new technologies could make SIRIUS XM’s technologies less competitive in the marketplace.

Failure of third parties to perform could adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s business.

SIRIUS XM’s business depends, in part, on various third parties, including:

·

manufacturers that build and distribute satellite radios;

·

companies that manufacture and sell integrated circuits for satellite radios;

·

programming providers and on-air talent;

·

vendors that operate SIRIUS XM’s call centers; and

·

vendors that have designed or built, and vendors that support or operate, other important elements of SIRIUS XM’s systems, including SIRIUS XM’s satellites.

If one or more of these third parties do not perform in a satisfactory or timely manner, including complying with SIRIUS XM’s standards and practices relating to business integrity, personnel, cybersecurity and other values, SIRIUS XM’s business could be adversely affected. For example, Space Systems/Loral has announced that it expects to cease manufacturing large geostationary communications satellites following completion of its existing orders. Space Systems/Loral is currently building two satellites for SIRIUS XM’s service (SXM-7 and SXM-8 satellites). The discontinuance of this business by Space Systems/Loral could adversely affect the delivery schedules of these satellites and the on-going technical support for SIRIUS XM’s existing in-orbit satellites. 

In addition, a number of third parties on which SIRIUS XM depends have experienced, and may in the future experience, financial difficulties or file for bankruptcy protection. Such third parties may not be able to perform their obligations to SIRIUS XM in a timely manner, if at all, as a result of their financial condition or may be relieved of their obligations to SIRIUS XM as part of seeking bankruptcy protection.

SIRIUS XM designs, establishes specifications, sources or specifies parts and components, and manages various aspects of the logistics of the production of satellite radios. As a result of these activities, SIRIUS XM may be exposed to liabilities associated with the design, manufacture and distribution of radios that the providers of an entertainment service

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would not customarily be subject to, such as liabilities for design defects, patent infringement and compliance with applicable laws, as well as the costs of returned product.

Failure to comply with FCC requirements could damage SIRIUS XM’s business.

SIRIUS XM holds FCC licenses and authorizations to operate commercial satellite radio services in the United States, including satellites, terrestrial repeaters, and related authorizations. The FCC generally grants licenses and authorizations for a fixed term. Although SIRIUS XM expects its licenses and authorizations to be renewed in the ordinary course upon their expiration, there can be no assurance that this will be the case. Any assignment or transfer of control of any of SIRIUS XM’s FCC licenses or authorizations must be approved in advance by the FCC.

The operation of SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio systems is subject to significant regulation by the FCC under authority granted through the Communications Act of 1934 and related federal law. SIRIUS XM is required, among other things, to operate only within specified frequencies; to meet certain conditions regarding the interoperability of SIRIUS XM’s satellite radios with those of other licensed satellite radio systems; to coordinate SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio services with radio systems operating in the same range of frequencies in neighboring countries; and to coordinate SIRIUS XM’s communications links to its satellites with other systems that operate in the same frequency band. Noncompliance by SIRIUS XM with these requirements or other conditions or with other applicable FCC rules and regulations could result in fines, additional license conditions, license revocation or other detrimental FCC actions. There is no guarantee that Congress will not modify the statutory framework governing SIRIUS XM’s services, or that the FCC will not modify its rules and regulations in a manner that would have a material impact on SIRIUS XM’s operations.

SIRIUS XM may from time to time modify its business plan, and these changes could adversely affect SIRIUS XM and its financial condition.

SIRIUS XM regularly evaluates its plans and strategy. These evaluations often result in changes to SIRIUS XM’s plans and strategy, some of which may be material. These changes in SIRIUS XM’s plans or strategy may include: the acquisition or termination of unique or compelling programming; the introduction of new features or services; significant new or enhanced distribution arrangements; investments in infrastructure, such as satellites, equipment or radio spectrum; and investments in, and/or acquisitions of, other businesses, including acquisitions that are not directly related to SIRIUS XM’s satellite radio business.

SIRIUS XM has a significant amount of indebtedness, and SIRIUS XM’s debt contains certain covenants that restrict SIRIUS XM’s operations.

As of December 31, 2018, SIRIUS XM had an aggregate principal amount of approximately $6.9 billion of indebtedness outstanding, $439 million of which was outstanding under a $1.75 billion Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility.

SIRIUS XM’s indebtedness increases its vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; requires SIRIUS XM to dedicate a portion of its cash flow from operations to payments on indebtedness, reducing the availability of cash flow to fund capital expenditures, marketing and other general corporate activities; limits SIRIUS XM’s ability to borrow additional funds; and may limit SIRIUS XM’s flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in SIRIUS XM’s business and the audio entertainment industry.

SIRIUS XM’s studios, terrestrial repeater networks, satellite uplink facilities or other ground facilities could be damaged by natural catastrophes or terrorist activities.

An earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorist attack or other catastrophic event could damage SIRIUS XM’s studios, terrestrial repeater networks or satellite uplink facilities, interrupt SIRIUS XM’s service and harm SIRIUS XM’s business.

Any damage to the satellites that transmit to SIRIUS XM’s terrestrial repeater networks would likely result in degradation of the affected service for some subscribers and could result in complete loss of service in certain or all areas.

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Damage to SIRIUS XM’s satellite uplink facilities could result in a complete loss of SIRIUS XM’s services until SIRIUS XM could transfer operations to suitable back-up facilities.

SIRIUS XM’s business may be impaired by third-party intellectual property rights.

Development of SIRIUS XM’s systems has depended upon the intellectual property that SIRIUS XM has developed, as well as intellectual property licensed from third parties. If the intellectual property that SIRIUS XM has developed or uses is not adequately protected, others will be permitted to and may duplicate portions of SIRIUS XM’s systems or services without liability. In addition, others may challenge, invalidate, render unenforceable or circumvent SIRIUS XM’s intellectual property rights, patents or existing licenses or SIRIUS XM may face significant legal costs in connection with defending and enforcing those intellectual property rights. Some of the know-how and technology SIRIUS XM has developed, and plans to develop, is not now, nor will it be, covered by U.S. patents or trade secret protections. Trade secret protection and contractual agreements may not provide adequate protection if there is any unauthorized use or disclosure. The loss of necessary technologies could require SIRIUS XM to substitute technologies of lower quality performance standards, at greater cost or on a delayed basis, which could harm SIRIUS XM.

Other parties may have patents or pending patent applications, which will later mature into patents or inventions that may block or put limits on SIRIUS XM’s ability to operate SIRIUS XM’s system or license technologies. SIRIUS XM may have to resort to litigation to enforce its rights under license agreements or to determine the scope and validity of other parties’ proprietary rights in the subject matter of those licenses. This may be expensive and SIRIUS XM may not succeed in any such litigation.

Third parties may assert claims or bring suit against SIRIUS XM for patent, trademark or copyright infringement, or for other infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property rights. Any such litigation could result in substantial cost, and diversion of effort and adverse findings in any proceeding could subject SIRIUS XM to significant liabilities to third parties; require SIRIUS XM to seek licenses from third parties; block SIRIUS XM’s ability to operate its systems or license its technology; or otherwise adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s ability to successfully develop and market its satellite radio systems.

Listing standards of the Nasdaq Stock Market include certain requirements regarding the listing of an “equity investment tracking stock,” and if the Liberty SiriusXM common stock were delisted because of a failure to meet any of such requirements, the liquidity and value of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock would be materially adversely affected.

The Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) has adopted listing standards relating to “equity investment tracking stocks,” which Nasdaq has determined are applicable to the Liberty SiriusXM common stock as a result of the magnitude and structure of the interests in SIRIUS XM that are attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group. These listing standards provide that the Liberty SiriusXM common stock could be delisted from Nasdaq, pending a review by Nasdaq of whether such stock could satisfy another applicable initial listing standard and remain listed on Nasdaq, if any of the following occur: (i) SIRIUS XM’s common stock ceases to be listed on Nasdaq where it is currently traded; (ii) Liberty ceases to own, directly or indirectly, at least 50% of either the outstanding common stock or voting power of SIRIUS XM; or (iii) the Liberty SiriusXM common stock ceases to track the performance of SIRIUS XM. Further, if trading in Sirius XM’s common stock were suspended or delisting proceedings were commenced with respect to such SIRIUS XM common stock, trading in the Liberty SiriusXM common stock would be suspended or delisting proceedings would be commenced with respect to the Liberty SiriusXM common stock at the same time. Any delisting or suspension in trading of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock would materially adversely affect the liquidity and value of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock.

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Risks Relating to the Formula One Group

Risks Relating to the Formula 1 Business

There could be a decline in the popularity of Formula 1, which may have a material adverse effect on Formula 1’s ability to exploit its commercial rights to the World Championship.

The success of Formula 1’s business and its ability to profitably renew or enter into beneficial new commercial arrangements, including race promotion, broadcasting, advertising and sponsorship contracts, is largely dependent upon the continued popularity of the World Championship. Similarly, the sponsorship and other revenue generation of the Teams are dependent on such continued popularity and, if such revenue decreased, it may impact their ability or willingness to continue participating in the World Championship. The popularity of Formula 1, globally and in particular countries and regions, may be influenced by competition from any rival championship and other forms of motor sport or similar entertainment which challenge Formula 1’s position and reputation as the pinnacle of world motor sport, the continued participation of the leading Teams, the perceived entertainment value of the World Championship, changes in societal views on automobiles more generally and an unfavorable economic climate which may discourage fans from attending Events or make it more difficult to expand into new markets, all of which could change rapidly and cannot be predicted. See “—Rival motor sport events could be established involving existing Teams or different teams, or existing Teams may divert their resources to participate in another motor sport event, which could lead to fewer Teams and race circuits being involved in Formula 1, or a Team’s primary engagement in motor sport being in another motor sport event, either of which could diminish the competitive position of Formula 1.” Formula 1 also faces stiff competition from other live sporting events, and with sporting events delivered over television networks, radio, the Internet and online services, mobile applications and other alternative sources, as well as from the availability of alternative forms of entertainment and leisure activities. Formula 1 competes for attendance, viewership and advertising with a wide range of alternatives, such as top flight soccer leagues in many of its non-U.S. markets. As a result of the large number of options available, Formula 1 faces strong competition for the attention of sports fans.

Further, a scandal which undermines the credibility of the sport, such as a race fixing scandal, or accident could also impact the popularity of Formula 1. In particular regions, the popularity of the World Championship varies depending upon the participation and performance of drivers and Teams from that region. There is no assurance that Formula 1 will be able to compete effectively with other forms of sports or entertainment or that the World Championship will maintain its popularity either globally or in any particular country or region. Any decrease in the continued popularity of the World Championship may affect Formula 1’s ability to enter into or renew race promotion, broadcasting, advertising, sponsorship or other commercial agreements which may materially adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and in turn materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Termination of the 100-Year Agreements could cause Formula 1 to discontinue its operations.

The license under the 100-Year Agreements is critical to the ongoing operation of Formula 1’s business. Under the 100-Year Agreements, FIA has granted Formula 1 the exclusive commercial rights to the World Championship, including the rights to use the trademarks associated with the World Championship, until the end of 2110. See “Item 1. Business—Formula 1Key Commercial Agreements100-Year Agreements” for a more detailed discussion of the 100-Year Agreements. Formula 1’s rights under these agreements can be terminated by the FIA if Formula 1 materially breaches the relevant agreements (with certain of such breaches subject to certain cure rights), undergoes an unpermitted change of control, interferes with certain of the FIA’s rights under the 100-Year Agreements or experiences certain insolvency events. If Formula 1’s license under the 100-Year Agreements was terminated in accordance with its terms or the FIA or another person successfully challenged the validity of that license (or the 100-Year Agreements as a whole), it could cause Formula 1 to discontinue its operations, lead to the termination of substantially all of Formula 1’s commercial contracts, prevent Formula 1 from exploiting the commercial rights to the World Championship and require Formula 1 to discontinue use of the World Championship trademarks and other intellectual property rights, which would materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

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Teams may, in certain circumstances, terminate their existing commitment to participate in the World Championship until (and including) 2020 or breach their obligations and withdraw.

Formula 1’s ability to effectively stage the World Championship depends on the ongoing involvement of its participants. Pursuant to individual Team Agreements, each of the current 10 Teams have committed to participate in the World Championship until December 31, 2020, subject to earlier termination upon the occurrence of certain events. Formula 1 cannot provide assurance that any of the Teams will commit to participate in the World Championship beyond 2020, or that the FIA will renew the Current Concorde Arrangements under the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement beyond 2030. If any of the current Teams cease to participate in the World Championship, Formula 1 may attempt to encourage new entrants to the World Championship; however, there is no assurance Formula 1 will be able to do this. If such Teams were not replaced, it could result in fewer competitors in the World Championship as compared to recent seasons which may impact the perceived entertainment value of Events. In addition, any negotiation for an extension to the term of the Team Agreements or the Concorde Arrangements could result in less favorable terms to Formula 1.

Even if a Team has committed to participate in the World Championship it may be able to exercise termination rights under its Team Agreement in certain circumstances and withdraw. For additional information regarding the agreements with the Teams, see “Item 1. Business—Formula 1Key Commercial AgreementsTeam Agreements.” It is also possible that Teams could form a rival motor sport series.

A lesser number of teams may reduce the popularity of Formula 1 which may affect its ability to enter into or renew race promotion, broadcasting, advertising, sponsorship or other commercial agreements, which may materially and adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and in turn may materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

The FIA may take actions which are not in Formula 1’s interest.

The FIA is the governing body of the World Championship and a party to the 100-Year Agreements and the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement. In its capacity as the governing body of the World Championship, the FIA must place safety and other sporting concerns over Formula 1’s commercial interests. As a result, the FIA may take actions with respect to safety and sporting standards and regulations which conflict with Formula 1’s interests as the commercial rights holder, including by increasing the cost to Teams of participating in the World Championship, diminishing the visual and sonic spectacle of Events, imposing fines on or excluding Teams, cancelling or delaying an Event, withholding approval for the staging of an Event, a new circuit or Formula 1’s proposed season calendar or establishing regulations without the support of the Teams. As a party to the 100-Year Agreements and the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement, the FIA has certain rights and limitations and the exercise or purported exercise of the FIA’s rights thereunder may conflict with Formula 1’s interests. Any actions taken by the FIA which conflict with Formula 1’s interests may adversely impact Formula 1’s operations and revenue, and in turn may materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 may be subject to enforcement actions under competition laws.

As further described in “Item 1.Business—Regulatory MattersCompetition Laws and Formula 1,” following an investigation by the EC in 1999 in relation to Formula 1’s compliance with competition laws, Formula 1 modified certain of its business practices and changed the terms of a number of Formula 1’s commercial contracts. Following these modifications and changes, the EC issued two comfort letters to Formula 1 in October 2001 stating that Formula 1 was no longer under investigation. Comfort letters are not binding on the EC and if it believes there has been a material change in circumstances, it could take further enforcement action. The EC issued a press release in October 2003 stating that it was satisfied that Formula 1 had complied with the modified practices and terms that had led to its issuing its comfort letters and that it had ended its monitoring of Formula 1’s compliance. In adopting practices and concluding commercial contracts (including as to contracts with broadcasters (and the manner in which these rights are offered), contracts with Teams and contracts with promoters), Formula 1 takes into account the modified practices that formed the basis of the EC’s comfort letters.

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markets. Failure to comply with the relevant practices, terms, laws and rules can give rise to challenges by the EC, national competition regulators and other interested parties. In addition, they could cause or deem certain of Formula 1’s commercial contracts (including the Team Agreements) to be unenforceable in whole or in part and/or require various terms (including duration, scope and exclusivity) to be modified, and/or Formula 1 could be liable for damages or other sanctions.

Formula 1 has sought to adopt practices and conclude commercial contracts that take into account competition law as it applies to the specific nature of Formula 1’s sporting and entertainment businesses, Formula 1’s role within those businesses and the roles of the counterparties to Formula 1’s commercial contracts. However given the uncertainty of the law in this area, and the possibility of third parties instigating action, there is a risk of further EC investigations, challenges or proceedings against Formula 1. For example, two Teams made a complaint against Formula 1 to the EC in September 2015 regarding the distribution of the Prize Fund and current sporting governance arrangements (though Formula 1 rejected the complaint as being without merit and believed it was in any event, a commercial dispute and not one that involved any breach of competition law). Although this particular complaint was withdrawn by the two Teams in early 2018, for the reasons set out above, no assurance can be given that there will be no future EC investigations, challenges or proceedings regarding unasserted matters.

Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, which in turn could materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 may be unable to renew, replace or renegotiate on favorable terms one or more of Formula 1’s race promotion, broadcasting or advertising and sponsorship contracts.

Formula 1’s race promotion, broadcasting and advertising and sponsorship contracts typically have terms of three to seven years, three to five years and three to five years, respectively, but may on occasion be of longer duration. When these contracts expire, Formula 1 may not be able to renew or replace them with contracts on similar terms or at all. Further, counterparties to our contracts may seek to terminate or renegotiate them, and we may not be able to replace terminated contracts with contracts on similar terms or at all or renegotiate contracts on terms that are as favorable to us. Formula 1’s ability to renew, replace or renegotiate its contracts on similar terms, or at all, is dependent on a number of factors which Formula 1 may not be able to control or predict including the popularity of Formula 1, the value of live sports rights generally, relevant regulations, economic conditions in the relevant countries and the spending capacity and priorities of Formula 1’s counterparties. Additionally, many of Formula 1’s race promotion and broadcasting contracts are directly or indirectly with, or guaranteed by, governmental bodies or agencies and a change in their spending capacity or priorities could impact Formula 1’s negotiations with them. A failure to renew, replace or renegotiate Formula 1’s existing contracts on similar or improved terms could result in, among other things, the cancellation of an Event, the payments Formula 1 receives decreasing, the term of the contracts being shortened, termination rights being granted to Formula 1’s counterparties and other contractual terms and conditions being introduced which could materially and adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and in turn could materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of non-performance by counterparties to Formula 1’s key commercial contracts.

Future payments under Formula 1’s core commercial contracts, including Formula 1’s race promotion, broadcasting and advertising and sponsorship contracts are typically made periodically over the course of several years. Formula 1’s ability to generate cash flow is heavily dependent on collecting amounts owed to it under these contracts. A change in the credit quality of one or more of Formula 1’s counterparties over the term of their contract with Formula 1 may increase the risk of non-payment. Certain of Formula 1’s counterparties are directly or indirectly governments or agencies thereof, some of which have recently experienced a deterioration in their credit quality. Formula 1 may also generally experience difficulties or be unable to recover payments owed to it by governments or agencies thereof because of their sovereign or semi-sovereign status. Additionally, an appreciation of the US dollar against the functional currencies of Formula 1’s counterparties increases the risk of non-payment. See “—Fluctuations in the value of the US dollar against the functional currencies of Formula 1’s business and Formula 1’s counterparties’ business could adversely affect Formula 1’s profitability and the Formula One Group.” The failure of one or more of Formula 1’s counterparties to pay

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outstanding amounts owed to it could have a material adverse effect on Formula 1’s cash flows and results of operation, and in turn could materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Potential challenges by tax authorities in the jurisdictions in which Formula 1 operates could adversely affect Formula 1’s financial results and position and in turn, the Formula One Group.

Formula 1’s taxes are based upon the applicable tax laws and tax rates in effect in the jurisdictions in which it operates and upon the nature of Formula 1’s business arrangements and activities with and in such jurisdictions. When computing its tax obligations in these jurisdictions, Formula 1 endeavors to apply national and international tax rules consistently and in accordance with generally accepted interpretations and practice. However, such rules, and their application to Formula 1’s business, may not be entirely clear in all cases and may be interpreted differently by the applicable tax authorities. There can be no assurance that, upon review of Formula 1’s positions, the applicable tax authorities will agree with such positions. If a tax authority successfully challenges Formula 1’s positions with respect to its business arrangements, intercompany pricing policies, or the taxable presence of subsidiaries in certain jurisdictions, or if Formula 1 loses a material tax dispute in any jurisdiction, then Formula 1 may be exposed to additional tax liabilities and penalties, which may adversely affect its financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and in turn may materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Changes in tax laws could adversely affect Formula 1 and the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 operates in various jurisdictions and is subject to changes in applicable tax laws, treaties, or regulations in those jurisdictions. A material change in the tax laws, treaties, or regulations, or their interpretation, of any jurisdiction with which Formula 1 does business, or in which Formula 1 has significant operations, could adversely affect Formula 1.

For example, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (the “OECD”) published in July 2013 an action plan on base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) that seeks to reform the taxation of multinational companies. In October 2015, the OECD released final reports on the focus areas in its action plan on BEPS. These final reports recommended changes to domestic laws, the OECD model tax convention, and the OECD transfer pricing guidelines. In addition, they proposed to accelerate the incorporation of recommended income tax treaty changes into existing bilateral treaties through a multilateral convention which, to date, has been signed by various interested countries. Although any recommendations made by the OECD are not themselves changes in tax law, those recommendations may result in changes in tax law, including countries taking unilateral action that may be uncoordinated, create double taxation, and increase controversy, which could adversely affect Formula 1 and the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 may face difficulties expanding into new markets, including as a result of being unable to attract race promoters for new Events.

Formula 1 has recently staged Events in a number of new markets and intends to explore further opportunities for expansion. Attracting the relevant race promoters to the World Championship in these markets on terms that are attractive to Formula 1 will be largely dependent on the popularity of the Formula 1 brand in these markets and Formula 1’s perceived ability to deliver the benefits that race promoters desire, such as publicity for the host city/region, economic impact or tourism. See “—There could be a decline in the popularity of Formula 1 which may have a material adverse effect on Formula 1’s ability to exploit its commercial rights to the World Championship.” Additionally, Formula 1 may have difficulties entering into agreements with race promoters that have the necessary resources and experience to obtain all the necessary FIA, governmental and sporting approvals and successfully stage an Event. Events in new markets also require significant investments in circuit infrastructure and other administrative costs by Formula 1’s race promoters which may not be recouped and may generate fees below those received from Formula 1’s Events staged in more developed markets. In addition, under the Team Agreements, the consent of a majority of certain Teams is required if there are more than 20 Events in a season or more than 17 Events are held in a season and the number of Events that are held outside Europe, the U.S. or Canada exceeds 60% or more of the total number of Events in that season. See “Item 1. Business—Formula 1Key Commercial AgreementsTeam Agreements.” Also, under the 100-Year Agreements as amended by the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement, Formula 1 must obtain the FIA’s approval to stage more than 25 Events (or beginning in 2031, more than 17 Events unless the FIA and Formula 1 make a new agreement on this point), and there is no assurance such approval will be obtained.

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Formula 1’s business is subject to laws and regulations including with respect to advertising, broadcasting and the environment, and changes in and judicial interpretations of such laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on Formula 1 and the Formula One Group.

Formula 1’s business is subject to laws and regulations including advertising, broadcasting, environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Such regimes are subject to periodic governmental review, legislative initiatives and judicial interpretations, any of which could adversely affect Formula 1’s business and its profitability. A substantial part of Formula 1’s, broadcasters’ and the Teams’ revenue come from advertising or sponsorship contracts. If new restrictions or bans on advertising specific products or services which are advertised in Formula 1 are introduced, it may reduce Formula 1’s advertising and sponsorship revenue or advertising revenue of Formula 1’s broadcasters and the Teams which in turn may reduce the value of Formula 1’s broadcasting contracts and impact the Teams’ desire to continue participating in Formula 1. For example, advertising of alcohol is restricted in certain countries where Events are held. Advertising laws could also be introduced which prevent the broadcast of images which include a restricted brand, thereby preventing Formula 1 from licensing the television rights in an affected country. Additionally, as Formula 1 expands into new markets, local customs, practices and cultural sensitivities may require Formula 1 and the Teams to restrict advertising certain products even if not required by law. Broadcasting laws could be introduced which require that Events be broadcast only on free-to-air television which would prevent Formula 1 from entering into pay television contracts in the relevant jurisdiction. Additionally, judicial decisions or other governmental action could interfere with the manner in which Formula 1 exploits its broadcasting rights, including in relation to Formula 1’s segmentation of such rights among different geographic regions. Environmental laws could also be introduced which place limits on engine design and Event activities. Motor sport has also been banned in certain countries. For example, Switzerland banned motor sport from 1955 to 2007 following an accident at the 24 Hours of Le Mans that killed spectators and a driver. A ban on motor sport in any country where Formula 1 holds an Event could result in a reduction in Formula 1’s revenue and as a consequence, may materially and adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition and prospects, which in turn may materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.

Significant developments stemming from the Brexit vote could have a material adverse effect on our business, particularly with respect to the movement of goods and people.

On June 23, 2016, the U.K. held a referendum in which U.K. citizens voted in favor of, on an advisory basis, an exit from the E.U. commonly referred to as “Brexit.” The results from the Brexit vote have created political and economic uncertainty, particularly in the U.K. and the E.U., and this uncertainty may last for years. Failing the implementation of an agreed extension, the U.K. will leave the E.U. on March 29, 2019. The potential impacts, if any, of the considerable uncertainty relating to Brexit or the resulting terms of Brexit on the free movement of goods, services, people and capital between the U.K. and the E.U., customer behavior, economic conditions, interest rates, currency exchange rates, availability of capital or other matters are unclear. Our business could be affected with respect to these matters during this period of uncertainty, and perhaps longer depending on the resulting terms. In particular, Formula 1’s headquarters and television production and technical operations are based in the U.K. and a number of Events are held in the E.U., including the 2019 British Grand Prix that is expected to be held in the U.K. in July 2019, and so our business could be materially adversely affected if Brexit results in greater restrictions on business between the U.K. and E.U. countries, increased regulatory complexities, disruptions in the movement of goods needed in our operations, including our and the Teams’ equipment to and from the U.K. based Event, and disruptions in the mobility of personnel, including our key personnel based in the U.K. These possible negative impacts, and others resulting from Brexit, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Events beyond Formula 1’s control may cause one or more events to be cancelled or postponed or prevent Formula 1 from providing an international television feed, each of which could result in the loss of revenue under Formula 1’s commercial contracts.

An Event may have to be postponed or cancelled, or Formula 1 may be unable to provide an international television feed of an Event, due to factors beyond its control, including an inability to transport Formula 1’s and the Teams’ equipment to an Event, power failures, parties to our race promotion contracts terminating those contracts, cancellation of large-scale public events by a competent authority due to a security or terrorism risk or outbreak of disease, which could result in the loss of revenue under Formula 1’s commercial contracts. The most recent cancellation was the Bahrain Grand

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Prix in 2011 which was cancelled due to civil unrest. If the cancellation of an Event is due to a force majeure event (such as the outbreak of war or civil unrest) that occurs prior to the scheduled commencement of scrutineering and sporting checks (which typically takes place on the Thursday immediately prior to the race or Wednesday in the case of the Grand Prix de Monaco), the race promoter is not required to pay Formula 1 the race promotion fee for that Event. Typically, Formula 1’s broadcast contracts include a provision to reduce the fee payable to Formula 1 if there are fewer than 15 Events in a season for reasons other than a force majeure event. However, if an Event were to be cancelled due to the race promoter failing to meet its obligations under the race promotion contract, then Formula 1 may be entitled to indemnification from the race promoter for any lost broadcasting revenue. If an Event is not held, cancelled or does not receive international television coverage (for example, as a result of a technical problem), Formula 1’s fees under the relevant advertising and sponsorship contract are likely to be reduced unless the advertising and sponsorship contract allows Formula 1 to substitute another Event for the cancelled Event and Formula 1 does so. If an Event is cancelled, Formula 1 will also be required to refund amounts paid under other arrangements, including amounts paid for tickets to the Paddock Club, the principal high end corporate hospitality offering at certain Event weekends.

Accidents during Events may cause losses that are not covered by insurance, disrupt an Event and cause Formula 1 reputational damage.

Racing accidents occur in Formula 1. The last racing accident to cause the death of a driver was in 2014 at the Japanese Grand Prix and there have also been two fatalities involving race marshals since 1994. Fatal accidents, particularly if they involve public spectators, could damage the reputation of Formula 1 and decrease its popularity, any of which could have a material adverse effect on Formula 1. Accidents can also result in the cancellation of a practice or qualifying session or a race. Additionally, persons harmed in any accident could seek compensation from Formula 1. Formula 1 and its promoters purchase insurance coverage for each Event. However, there can be no assurance that such insurance policies will provide adequate coverage at all times and in all circumstances. If Formula 1 is held liable for damages beyond the scope of the insurance coverage available to Formula 1 (including the insurance contract procured by the race promoter to include coverage for Formula 1), Formula 1’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, which in turn could materially adversely affect the Formula One Group.

Terrorist acts during Events may cause Formula 1 damage and losses that are not covered by insurance.

Formula 1 is a high profile sport with a global fan base and Events are attended by a large number of spectators. An Event, like any other major sporting event, could be the target of an actual or threatened terrorist act, either of which could disrupt Formula 1 and lead to the cancellation of Events, increase security requirements and result in a decline of spectator attendance at Events. Additionally, persons harmed in any terrorist act may attempt to seek compensation from Formula 1. The general risk of a terror attack has increased recently in a number of the countries in which Events are held. Formula 1 purchases annual insurance policies covering all Events, and individual race promoters purchase insurance coverage for their own Events under which Formula 1 is also covered, which provide coverage for third party liability covering personal injury, equipment and property damage. However, there can be no assurance that this insurance will be adequate at all times and in all circumstances. Terrorism is expressly excluded from the public liability coverage arranged by the race promoters, although Formula 1’s own insurance policies cover both its broadcast and Event systems equipment and its employer and public liabilities exposures for terrorism risks. If Formula 1 is held liable for damages beyond the scope of the insurance coverage (its own and that arranged by the race promoter) and/or is unable to obtain indemnification from the relevant insurer(s), Formula 1’s business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, which in turn could materially adversely affect the Formula One Group.

Rival motor sport events could be established involving existing Teams or different teams, or existing Teams may divert their resources to participate in another motor sport event, which could lead to fewer Teams and race circuits being involved in Formula 1, or a Team’s primary engagement in motor sport being in another motor sport event, either of which could diminish the competitive position of Formula 1.

In the future, it is possible that a rival motor racing series similar to Formula 1 could be established, involving existing Teams and/or different teams or an existing motor sport event could become more popular and become a rival series to Formula 1. Such a rival series could lead to fewer Teams and race circuits in Formula 1, reduce the budget that a Team is willing to spend on its participation in Formula 1, or diminish the competitive position of Formula 1 and have a

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material adverse effect on Formula 1’s results of operations and business and the Formula One Group. In addition, certain of Formula 1’s commercial contracts could be terminated if Formula 1 ceased to be the premier motor racing series for open wheel single-seater cars. Pursuant to individual Team Agreements, each of the 10 Teams have committed to participate in the World Championship until December 31, 2020. If a rival motor racing series is established (or if an existing series develops into a rival series), this may reduce the popularity of Formula 1 leading to a decline in the value of Formula 1’s commercial contracts which may materially adversely affect Formula 1’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and in turn may materially adversely affect the Formula One Group. See “—There could be a decline in the popularity of Formula 1 which may have a material adverse effect on Formula 1’s ability to exploit its commercial rights to the World Championship” and “—Teams may, in certain circumstances, terminate their existing commitment to participate in the World Championship until (and including) 2020 or breach their obligations and withdraw.”

Changes in consumer viewing habits and the emergence of new content distribution platforms could adversely affect Formula 1’s business and the Formula One Group.

The manner in which consumers view televised sporting events is changing rapidly with the emergence of alternative distribution platforms. Digital cable, internet and wireless content providers are continuing to improve technologies, content offerings, user interface, and business models that allow consumers to access video-on-demand or internet-based tools with interactive capabilities including start, stop and rewind. Formula 1’s exclusive commercial rights place no limits on the platforms on which it can operate, including online. However, such developments may impact the profitability or effectiveness of Formula 1’s existing licensing practices and there is no guarantee that Formula 1 will be successful in adapting its licensing practices and/or media platform as consumer viewing habits change. If Formula 1 is unsuccessful in adapting its licensing practices and/or media platform as consumer viewing habits change, Formula 1’s viewership levels (whether on traditional or new platforms) may decrease and/or its licensing practices may become less profitable leading to the possibility of a reduction in the value of its broadcasting and advertising and sponsorship contracts. Any reduction in the value of Formula 1’s commercial rights and/or contracts may materially and adversely affect its revenue, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, which in turn may materially adversely affect the Formula One Group. While Formula 1’s monetization of its television rights has increased in recent years, there can be no assurance that such increases will continue or that Formula 1’s level of such monetization will be comparable to that of other sporting events.

If confidential information regarding Formula 1’s business arrangements is disclosed or leaked, it could affect Formula 1’s relationships with counterparties and/or Teams and result in less favorable commercial contracts and adversely affect Formula 1’s business and the Formula One Group.

The success of Formula 1’s business depends on maintaining good relationships with Formula 1’s counterparties (including race promoters, broadcasters, advertisers and sponsors) and the Teams and entering into race promotion, broadcasting, advertising and sponsorship and other commercial contracts on favorable terms. If confidential information regarding Formula 1’s business arrangements with its counterparties and/or the Teams were to be disclosed or leaked, it could harm Formula 1’s relationships with those parties and result in less favorable terms in its commercial contracts, including with respect to pricing and adversely affect its business, results of operation, financial condition and prospects, which in turn could materially adversely affect the Formula One Group.

Formula 1 depends on trademarks, copyrights and intellectual property.

Formula 1 relies on certain trademarks, copyrights and other intellectual property to protect its rights, including its brands, logos and television footage. The existence of complex factual and legal issues may give rise to uncertainty as to the validity or subsistence, scope and enforceability of a particular trademark, copyright or other intellectual property or contractual right in a particular jurisdiction. While historically Formula 1 has been widely transmitted by free-to-air television which reduced its attractiveness as a target for piracy and other infringement, Formula 1 is increasingly transmitted by pay TV operators that are greater targets for piracy. In any event, Formula 1’s intellectual property, and in particular the Formula 1 brand (including the F1 logo) and television footage are potential targets for counterfeiting, piracy and other infringement. New technologies such as the convergence of computing, communication, and entertainment devices, the falling prices of devices incorporating such technologies, increased broadband internet speed and penetration

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and increased availability and speed of mobile data transmission have made the unauthorized digital pirating and distribution of televised sporting events easier and faster and enforcement of intellectual property rights more challenging. The unauthorized use of intellectual property in the entertainment industry generally continues to be a significant challenge for intellectual property rights holders. If Formula 1 is unsuccessful in preventing widespread piracy and illegal live streaming of Events in the future, these activities could result in lost revenue and a reduction in the value of Formula 1’s broadcasting rights which may materially and adversely affect Formula 1’s business, results of operation, financial condition and prospects, and in turn may materially adversely affect the Formula One Group.

The terms of Formula 1’s indebtedness may limit its financial and operating flexibility.

Covenants contained in the agreements governing Formula 1’s credit facilities will restrict the ability of its subsidiaries to, among other things:

·

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or be a creditor in respect of financial indebtedness;

·

pay dividends, redeem their share capital, purchase capital stock, make investments or other restricted payments;

·

make any payment in respect, or on account of, indebtedness owing to Delta Topco;

·

in certain circumstances, make any payment or distribution in respect, or on account of, intra-group debt;

·

issue or sell capital stock;

·

acquire assets or make investments;

·

sell assets (including capital stock of subsidiaries);

·

create liens;

·

enter into sale and leaseback or finance lease transactions;

·

acquire an interest in or invest in any joint venture;

·

enter into transactions with shareholders or affiliates except on arm’s length terms for full market value, including in relation to the provision of goods or services;

·

enter into any contractual or similar restriction which restricts their ability to pay dividends or other distributions, make intra-group loan repayments, loan repayments or loans;

·

effect a consolidation or merger;

·

amend material commercial contracts; and

·

enter into derivative transactions in respect of exposures which are unconnected to Formula 1’s credit facilities.

In addition, those covenants restrict certain holding companies in Formula 1 from trading, carrying on business, owning assets or incurring liabilities.

Formula 1 may also be required to repay its credit facilities upon the occurrence of certain events and Formula 1 cannot give any assurance that it will be able to finance such a repayment. Failure to comply with an obligation to repay the credit facilities would result in an event of default which could have a material adverse effect on Formula 1 and the Formula One Group.

These restrictive covenants could limit Formula 1’s ability to pursue Formula 1’s growth plans, restrict Formula 1’s flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in Formula 1’s business and industry and increase Formula 1’s vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions. Formula 1 may enter into additional financing arrangements in the future, which could further restrict Formula 1’s flexibility.

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Fluctuations in the value of the US dollar against the functional currencies of Formula 1’s business and Formula 1’s counterparties’ business could adversely affect Formula 1’s profitability and the Formula One Group.

In 2018, a significant proportion of Formula 1’s revenue and costs were denominated in U.S. dollars. Formula 1 also operates in a number of other currencies, most notably the pound sterling and Euro. There may be a mismatch between the amount of a local currency Formula 1 generates in revenue and incurs in expenses. Our financial statements translate local currency transactions into U.S. dollars. Formula 1 uses derivatives to hedge its exposure to foreign currency risk. There is no assurance that such measures will be successful and fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar against Formula 1’s functional currencies could affect its profitability. Additionally, most payments Formula 1 receives from Formula 1’s counterparties under Formula 1’s commercial contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars while their revenue is typically denominated in other currencies, most notably the Euro or the local currency in the country where the relevant Event is held. An appreciation of the U.S. dollar, against the functional currencies of Formula 1’s counterparties whose revenue is denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, increases the cost of their payments to Formula 1 in their functional currencies and the risk that they will not make their payments to Formula 1 or cause them to request Formula 1 to enter into a new contract with such counterparty, which could affect Formula 1’s profitability and financial position, and in turn could impact the Formula One Group. See “—Formula 1 is exposed to credit-related losses in the event of non-performance by counterparties to Formula 1’s key commercial contracts.”

Formula 1 (as well as Liberty’s strategic vision for it) is reliant upon the retention of certain key personnel and the hiring of strategically valuable personnel, and Formula 1 may lose or be unable to hire one or more of such personnel.

Formula 1’s commercial success is dependent to a considerable extent on the abilities and reputation of Formula 1’s management. Bernie Ecclestone, who previously served as the chief executive officer of Formula 1 and now holds the title of Chairman Emeritus following his departure from the Formula 1 business in connection with the Second Closing, was the original owner of Formula 1 and was personally responsible for the commercialization of Formula 1 during the 1980s. The Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Chase Carey has a wealth of experience over many decades in the media sector. In addition, the Chief Financial Officer, Duncan Llowarch, and the General Counsel, Sacha Woodward Hill, have 22 years and 23 years of experience in Formula 1, respectively. Ross Brawn and Sean Bratches joined the Formula 1 management team in 2017 as Managing Directors of Motor Sports and Commercial Operations, respectively, and bring to Formula 1 tremendous experience in their respective fields. The success of the business prior to Liberty’s acquisition of Formula 1 (the “Formula 1 Acquisition”) had depended to a significant extent on Mr. Ecclestone. While Formula 1 has the benefit of a strong management team and contracted revenue which provide Formula 1 stability in the near term, the voluntary departure of key personnel could disrupt Formula 1’s operations and have a material adverse effect on Formula 1’s business and results of operations, which in turn could materially adversely impact the Formula One Group.  Liberty and Formula 1 continue to take steps to hire new members of management for the Formula 1 team as Liberty continues to integrate and expand the Formula 1 business. If Liberty and Formula 1 are unable to make strategic hires to strengthen the management of Formula 1, or if we are unable to retain these strategic hires over the long-term, Liberty may be unable to recognize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Formula 1.

Liberty may fail to realize the potential benefits of the Formula 1 Acquisition in a timely manner or at all.

Liberty believes there are significant benefits that may be realized by acquiring the Formula 1 business and leveraging Liberty’s expertise in live events and digital monetization. However, the efforts to realize these benefits will be a complex process and may disrupt both companies’ existing operations if not implemented in a timely and efficient manner. If the management teams of Liberty and Formula 1 are unable to minimize the potential disruption to their respective businesses and operations during this period, Liberty may not fully realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Formula 1. Realizing the benefits of the acquisition may depend in part on the efficient coordination and alignment of various functions. Liberty may encounter difficulties, costs and delays as a result of the acquisition, including the following, any of which could harm Formula 1’s results of operations, businesses, financial condition, and in turn the Formula One Group:

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conflicts between business cultures;

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difficulties and delays in the coordination and alignment of business relationships and other functions of Liberty and Formula 1;

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the diversion of management’s attention from the normal daily operations of its business;

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complexities associated with leveraging Liberty’s live events and digital monetization expertise while supporting different business models;

·

potential conflicts with Formula 1 counterparties;

·

loss of key employees and disruptions among employees at Formula 1 that may result in the loss of valuable experience and capabilities and erode employee morale;

·

potential disruption to the Formula 1 business caused by the departure of personnel; and

·

failure to achieve anticipated levels of revenue, profitability or productivity for the Formula 1 business.

Failure to implement, or problems with implementing, the post-acquisition strategy for Formula 1 may also adversely affect the trading price of the Liberty Formula One common stock (including Series C Liberty Formula One common stock (“FWONK”)).

The Teams have certain governance rights under the Current Concorde Arrangements and the organizational documents of Delta Topco that may limit or, at a minimum, influence actions that Liberty may seek to cause Formula 1 to take.

The Teams are entitled to certain consent rights under the Current Concorde Arrangements (a series of governance and regulatory agreements among the stakeholders in Formula 1), including in relation to the number of Events in a season exceeding 20 (or 17 if the number of Events that are held outside Europe, the US or Canada exceeds 60% or more of the total number of Events in that season) and the introduction of new sporting and technical regulations applying to the World Championship. Also, under the Current Concorde Arrangements, the Longest Standing Team (as defined below) has a consent right over certain nominees for appointment as a new chief executive of Formula 1 and certain rights with respect to the termination of the current chief executive of Formula 1. Further, the team agreements with McLaren and Mercedes grant the corporate parent of each of those Teams (McLaren Group Limited and Daimler AG, respectively) the right to appoint a director of Delta Topco until December 31, 2020 or the termination of the relevant Team Agreement, if earlier, and Ferrari has an equivalent right, pursuant to a provision contained in all of the Team Agreements granting that right to the Longest Standing Team that has competed in the World Championship for the greatest number of seasons since 1950 (the “Longest Standing Team”) (each such director, a “Team Director”). The right with respect to the Longest Standing Team is also reflected in the organizational documents of Delta Topco. The Longest Standing Team’s Team Director has the right to sit on the audit and ethics and nomination committees of Delta Topco and any standing or ad hoc committees of Delta Topco established to monitor the strategic development of Formula 1’s business. The Longest Standing Team’s Team Director also has influence in relation to the removal or appointment of Formula 1’s chief executive, by virtue of being a member of the nomination committee of Delta Topco. The interests or opinions of the Teams with regard to certain actions proposed to be taken by Formula 1 may differ from those of Liberty. In such event, the Teams may be able to block these actions or, at a minimum, cause their interests or opinions to be considered by the Delta Topco board of directors.

Sales (or anticipated sales) of shares of FWONK issued in connection with the Formula 1 Acquisition may negatively affect the trading price of shares of FWONK.

In connection with the Formula 1 Acquisition, Liberty issued approximately 137 million shares of FWONK in the aggregate to the selling stockholders in the Second Closing (“Selling Stockholders”), the third party investors that agreed to acquire shares that would otherwise have been issued to the Selling Stockholders pursuant to certain investment agreements and into treasury in connection with the proposed Team placements. Further, Delta Topco issued $351 million in subordinated exchangeable debt instruments (“Exchangeable Notes”) to the Selling Stockholders at the Second Closing. The Exchangeable Notes, which would have matured on the 30th month after the date of the Second Closing, were exchangeable by the holders at any time for shares of FWONK or, at Delta Topcos option, cash. In September 2017, $323 million aggregate principal amount of Exchangeable Notes were exchanged for 14.5 million shares of FWONK. In

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November 2017, our indirect, wholly owned subsidiary completed an exchange offer for the remaining outstanding Exchangeable Notes, following which no shares of FWONK underlying the Exchangeable Notes remain available.

Pursuant to the shareholders agreement that Liberty entered into with the Selling Stockholders at the Second Closing, Liberty filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 following the Second Closing. The shelf registration statement registered the secondary offer and sale of shares of FWONK issued to the Selling Stockholders at the Second Closing. Further, Liberty has agreed to cooperate with the Selling Stockholders in connection with efforts to sell their shares of FWONK in post-closing underwritten offerings under certain circumstances. Liberty has also agreed to provide registration rights to the third party investors and to cooperate with them in connection with post-closing underwritten offerings under certain circumstances. The Selling Stockholders and third party investors may sell shares of FWONK from time to time, and the trading price of shares of FWONK (and any other series of Liberty Formula One common stock) could decline as a result of further sales by the Selling Stockholders or the third party investors of a large number of shares of FWONK in the public market, or from the perception that these sales might occur.

Furthermore, sales of a substantial number of shares of Liberty Formula One common stock in the public markets, or the perception that these sales might occur, could impair our ability to raise capital through a future sale of, or pay for acquisitions using, our equity securities. See “—Risks Relating to Ownership of our Common Stock due to Our Tracking Stock Capitalization—Transactions in Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock by our insiders could depress the market price of those stocks.”

Other Risks Relating to the Formula One Group

We do not have the right to manage our business affiliate, Live Nation, which means we are not able to cause it to operate in a manner that is favorable to us.

We do not have the right to manage the businesses or affairs of our business affiliate Live Nation, which is attributed to the Formula One Group. Rather, our rights take the form of representation on the board of directors and board committees. Although our board representation rights may enable us to exercise influence over the management or policies of Live Nation, they will not enable us to cause Live Nation to take any actions we believe are favorable to us (such as paying dividends or distributions).

Our equity method investment in Live Nation may have a material impact on net earnings of Liberty and the Formula One Group.

We have a significant investment in Live Nation that is attributed to the Formula One Group, which we account for under the equity method of accounting. Under the equity method, we report our proportionate share of the net earnings or losses of our equity affiliates in our statement of operations under “share of earnings (losses) of affiliates,” which contributes to our earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes. If the earnings or losses of Live Nation are material in any year, those earnings or losses may have a material effect on our net earnings and those attributed to the Formula One Group. Notwithstanding the impact on our net earnings and those attributed to the Formula One Group, we do not have the ability to cause Live Nation to pay dividends or make other payments or advances to its stockholders, including us. In addition, our investment in Live Nation is in publicly traded securities, which is not reflected at fair value on our balance sheet and is subject to market risk that is not directly reflected in our statement of operations.

The business of Live Nation is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including many of which are similar to those above with respect to the Liberty SiriusXM Group, such as:

·

“Failure of third parties to perform could adversely affect SIRIUS XM’s business;”

·

“SIRIUS XM faces substantial competition and that competition is likely to increase over time;”

·

“If SIRIUS XM fails to protect the security of personal information about its customers, SIRIUS XM could be subject to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and its reputation could suffer;”

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·

“Interruption or failure of SIRIUS XM’s information technology and communications systems could negatively impact SIRIUS XM’s results and SIRIUS XM’s brand;”

·

“SIRIUS XM’s business may be impaired by third-party intellectual property rights;” and

·

“Existing or future laws and regulations could harm SIRIUS XM’s business,” including as to the international jurisdictions in which Live Nation operates.

Risks Relating to the Braves Group

The financial success of the Braves Group will depend, in large part, on the Major League Baseball club, the Braves, achieving on-field success.

The financial results of the Braves Group depend in large part on the ability of the Braves to achieve on-field success. The team’s successes in the 1990s and early 2000s generated significant fan enthusiasm, resulting in sustained ticket, premium seating and concession and merchandise sales, and greater shares of local television and radio audiences during that period. Furthermore, during the 15 seasons between 1991 and 2005, success in the regular season permitted participation in MLB’s postseason 14 times, which provided the franchise with additional revenue and income. While the Braves have made the MLB playoffs during three of the past seven seasons, there can be no assurance that the team will perform well or qualify for postseason play during the next season or any season thereafter. Poor on-field performance by the Braves is likely to adversely affect the financial performance of the Braves Group.

The success of the Braves will depend largely on their ability to develop, obtain and retain talented players.

The success of the Braves depends, in large part, on the ability to develop, obtain and retain talented players. The Braves compete with other MLB baseball teams and teams in other countries for available professional players and top player prospects. There can be no assurance that the Braves will be able to retain players upon expiration of their contracts or identify and obtain or develop new players of adequate talent to replace players who retire or are injured, traded, released or lost to free agency. Even if the Braves are able to retain or obtain players who have had successful amateur or professional careers, or develop talented players through the Braves’ minor league affiliates or otherwise, there can be no assurance that such players will perform successfully for the Braves. The 2017 penalties handed down by MLB against the Braves in the international market will also limit the Braves’ ability to develop and obtain players internationally through the 2020 season.

The risk of injuries to key or popular players creates uncertainty and could negatively impact financial results.

A significant portion of the financial results of the Braves Group will be dependent upon the on-field success of the Braves and injuries to players pose risk. An injury sustained by a key player, or an injury occurring at a key point in the season, could negatively impact the team’s performance and decrease the likelihood of postseason play. An injury sustained by a popular player could negatively impact fan enthusiasm, which could negatively impact ticket sales, and other sources of revenue. Furthermore, after the start of each season, all MLB players under contract are generally entitled to all of their contract salary for the season, even after sustaining an injury. Having to compensate a player who is unable to perform for a substantial period of the season, as well as the replacement for the injured player, could create a significant financial burden for the Braves. The Braves have obtained disability insurance for their players signed to multiyear contracts to partially mitigate these risks, but there can be no assurance that such insurance will compensate for all or substantially all of the costs associated with player injuries and such insurance would not serve to mitigate any potential negative impact on the team’s performance and revenue.

Focus on team performance, and decisions by MLB may negatively impact financial results in the short-term.

Management of Braves Holdings focuses on making operational and business decisions that enhance the on-field performance of the Braves and this may sometimes require implementing strategies and making investments that may negatively impact short-term revenue for the sake of immediate on-field success. For example, in order to improve the short-term performance of the team, management may decide to make trades for highly compensated players and sign free agents or current players to high value contracts, which could significantly increase operating expenses for a given year,

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and which could adversely impact the trading price of the Liberty Braves common stock. Alternatively, management may decide to focus on longer-term success by investing more heavily in the recruiting and development of younger and less expensive talent, which may negatively affect the team’s current on-field success and in turn could have a negative impact on ticket sales and other sources of revenue. Braves Holdings must also comply with the rules and decisions of the Commissioner, which has significant authority over MLB teams and must act in the best interests of MLB as a whole. Such rules and decisions may be inconsistent with strategies adopted by management and may have a negative effect on the near-term value of the Braves Group.

The organizational structure of MLB and its rules and regulations impose substantial restrictions on the operations of Braves Holdings and its subsidiaries.

As a condition to maintaining its MLB franchise, each MLB club must comply with MLB Rules and Regulations. For example, each MLB club is subject to the Major League Constitution, the Major League Rules and the CBA. In addition, each club is required to appoint one “Control Person” who is acceptable to MLB and the other clubs and who has significant authority over club operations and the club’s interaction with MLB. Pursuant to the MLB Rules and Regulations, an MLB club must comply with, among other things, limitations on the amount of debt it can incur, revenue sharing arrangements with the other MLB clubs, commercial arrangements with regard to the national broadcasting of its games and other programming and commercial arrangements relating to the use of its intellectual property. For example, the Braves were not in compliance with the rule governing the amount of debt that is permitted to be issued by an MLB club in 2015 and 2016 and were subject to certain remedial measures, including the repayment of outstanding indebtedness. However, the Braves were in compliance with this rule in 2017 and are projected to be in compliance for 2018. Similarly, the vote of 75% of the MLB clubs is required for the approval of the sale of any MLB club or relocation of a franchise to another city.

Braves Holdings will be required to abide by any changes to the MLB Rules and Regulations and the adoption of any new MLB Rules and Regulations, irrespective of whether such changes or new arrangements negatively impact Braves Holdings, and in turn the Braves Group, proportionately or disproportionately, as compared with the other MLB clubs. Further, the Commissioner interprets the MLB Rules and Regulations, and Braves Holdings has agreed to submit any and all disputes related to the MLB Rules and Regulations, or disputes involving another MLB club, to the Commissioner as sole arbitrator. The decisions of the Commissioner are binding and not appealable, and therefore Braves Holdings may not resort to the courts or any other means to enforce its rights or contest the application of the MLB Rules and Regulations. No assurance can be given that any changes to the MLB Rules and Regulations, adoption of new MLB Rules and Regulations or decisions made by the Commissioner will not adversely affect the Braves Group and its financial results and have a negative impact upon the value of the Liberty Braves common stock.

The possibility of MLB expansion could create increased competition.

The most recent MLB expansion occurred in 1998. MLB continues to evaluate opportunities to expand into new markets across North America. Because revenue from national broadcasting and licensing agreements are divided equally among all MLB clubs, any such expansion could dilute the revenue realized by the Braves Group from such agreements and increase competition for talented players among MLB clubs. Any expansion in the Southeast region of the United States, in particular, could also draw fan, consumer and viewership interest away from the Braves.

Viewership, and interest in baseball generally, may fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.

Viewership of professional baseball has increased significantly in recent years. However, MLB has gone through periods of decreased popularity in the past, and any future decline in television ratings or attendance for MLB as a whole could have an adverse effect on the Braves Group’s financial results. As sporting and entertainment trends change, fans may be drawn to other spectator sports and entertainment options, in spite of on-field success by the Braves.

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Broadcasting rights, both national and local, present an important source of revenue for Braves Holdings, and decreases in this broadcasting revenue could have an adverse effect on the Braves Group’s financial results.

Braves Holdings derives revenue directly from the sale of their local broadcasting rights through individually negotiated carriage agreements. The sale of their national broadcasting rights, together with those of all other MLB teams, is organized through MLB with all such revenue running through MLB’s Central Fund and allocated consistent with the governing documents. Any decline in television ratings, popularity of the Braves specifically, or even MLB as a whole, could adversely affect the revenue that can be derived from the sale of these broadcasting rights. In addition, from time to time, litigation may arise challenging the commercial terms on which this programming is distributed.

Braves Holdings’ need for capital to fund its operations and recent borrowings used or to be used to finance construction and development of the Braves’ stadium, the Development Project and a spring training facility could negatively impact the Braves Group’s financial condition.

Braves Holdings generally funds its operating activities through cash flow from operations and two credit facilities, with a combined borrowing capacity of $185 million. If cash flows become insufficient to cover capital needs, Braves Holdings may be required to take on additional indebtedness, but applicable MLB rules limit the aggregate amount of indebtedness that Braves Holdings may incur. As of December 31, 2018, Braves Holdings had $17 million outstanding under its operating credit facilities.

Braves Holdings has, directly or indirectly through subsidiaries, taken on a significant level of debt and increased expenses related to the development of the Braves’ stadium, the Development Project and a new spring training facility. As of December 31, 2018, Braves Holdings had approximately $317 million outstanding under various debt instruments for construction and other stadium-related costs and approximately $160 million outstanding under various credit facilities and loans for the Development Project. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $56 million of capacity remained available under the credit facilities and loans for the Development Project and spring training facility.

These expenditures have increased, and will continue to increase the Braves Group’s costs and indebtedness in the near term, which could have a negative impact on Braves Holdings’ credit worthiness and the value of the Liberty Braves common stock.

The financial performance of the Braves Group may be materially adversely affected if it does not experience the anticipated benefits of the Development Project in the near term or at all.

The Braves Group is incurring a significant amount of capital expenditures and indebtedness in connection with the Development Project, which includes construction and development of the Development Project. Although the Braves Group believes that the new stadium and mixed use development will result in a material increase in revenue over the short and long term, including as a result of increased game attendance and rental income from the mixed use development, no assurance can be given that attendance will increase as anticipated or that the potential benefits of the mixed-use development will be fully realized. To the extent that the anticipated benefits of the Development Project do not materialize and the Braves Group does not experience the expected increase in revenue, the Braves Group’s increased costs, including its new debt service obligations, could materially adversely affect the Braves Group’s financial results, which is likely to suppress the value of the Liberty Braves common stock.

Development activities, such as those associated with the Development Project, are subject to significant risks.

Risks associated with real estate development projects, such as the Development Project, relate to, among other items, adverse changes in national market conditions (which can result from political, regulatory, economic or other factors), changes in interest rates, competition for, and the financial condition of, tenants, the cyclical nature of property markets, adverse local market conditions, changes in the availability of debt financing, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, zoning laws and other governmental rules and fiscal policies, energy prices, population trends, risks and operating problems arising out of the presence of certain construction materials, acts of God, uninsurable losses and other factors which are beyond the control of the developer and may make the underlying investments economically unattractive. In addition, development activities involve the risk that construction may not be completed within budget or

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on schedule because of cost overruns, work stoppages, shortages of building materials, the inability of contractors to perform their obligations under construction contracts, defects in plans and specifications or various other factors, including natural disasters. Any of these risks could result in substantial unanticipated delays or expenses associated with the Development Project, which could have an adverse effect on the Braves Group’s financial condition and suppress the value of the Liberty Braves common stock.

The Braves Group has limited operating history managing mixed use development projects.

Management of Braves Holdings has a long history as an operator of a professional baseball franchise, but has only been managing the mixed use development project since the opening of the Development Project in 2017. Although management of Braves Holdings has engaged with real estate developers and other real estate experts, management of Braves Holdings may not initially have the expertise necessary to fully realize the projected benefits of the mixed use development. Management’s limited experience, among other things, may result in the Braves Group being unable to achieve its goals for the Development Project. The return on the Braves Group’s significant investment in the mixed use development cannot be predicted reliably and the ability of the Braves Group to realize expected financial results relating to its management of the Development Project is subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies and may change materially in response to one or more future events.

Certain covenants included in the documents governing the indebtedness incurred in connection with the Development Project impose limitations on the liquidity of the Braves Group.

The agreements governing the indebtedness incurred, directly or indirectly, by Braves Holdings, include certain covenants that limit the ability of Braves Holdings to sell or otherwise transfer control over certain assets or equity interests of affiliated entities. These covenants could limit the flexibility of Braves Holdings to react to changing or adverse market conditions, or developments relating to the Development Project, which could have an adverse effect on the financial condition of the Braves Group and could suppress the value of the Liberty Braves common stock.

Risks Relating to the Ownership of Our Common Stock Due to Our Tracking Stock Capitalization

Holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock are common stockholders of our Company and, therefore, are subject to risks associated with an investment in our Company as a whole, even if a holder does not own shares of common stock of all of our groups.

Even though we have attributed, for financial reporting purposes, all of our consolidated assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and cash flows among the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group in order to prepare the separate financial statement schedules for each of those groups, we will retain legal title to all of our assets and our tracking stock capitalization does not limit our legal responsibility, or that of our subsidiaries, for the liabilities included in any set of financial statement schedules. Holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock do not have any legal rights related to specific assets attributed to their associated group and, in any liquidation, holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, holders of Liberty Braves common stock and holders of Liberty Formula One common stock will be entitled to receive a pro rata share of our available net assets based on their respective numbers of liquidation units.

Possible market confusion may result from holders of our tracking stocks mistakenly believing that they (i) directly own stock of a company that is attributed to one of our tracking stocks and (ii) have any equity or voting interests with respect to companies attributed to one of our tracking stocks.

Our company holds interests in various companies, including public companies, and these interests are attributed to our tracking stock groups. In particular, the assets of the Liberty SiriusXM Group are exclusively comprised of our company’s ownership interest in SIRIUS XM.  Similarly, since the completion of our acquisition of Formula 1 in January 2017, the Formula One Group is now comprised of our subsidiary that owns the Formula 1 business, as well as our ownership interest in Live Nation. Depending on the composition of the assets underlying our tracking stock groups from time to time, confusion in the marketplace may occur if holders of our tracking stock mistakenly believe they own stock of a company attributed to the applicable tracking stock group. This may especially be true in cases where a tracking stock

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group has a name that is similar to the publicly traded company attributed to the applicable tracking stock group, as is the case of the Liberty SiriusXM Group and SIRIUS XM. As described above, holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock do not have any legal rights related to specific assets attributed to their associated tracking stock group. Similarly, holders of these tracking stocks do not, by virtue of their ownership of our tracking stock, own any equity or voting interest in any company attributed to one of our tracking stock groups, including any public companies.

We may split off, spin off or reattribute assets, liabilities and businesses attributed to our tracking stock groups in a manner that may disparately impact some of our stockholders if our board of directors determines such transaction to be in the best interest of all of our stockholders, and in some cases, not all of our stockholders would be entitled to vote on such a transaction.

Pursuant to the terms of Liberty’s restated certificate of incorporation (its “charter”), Liberty’s board of directors may determine that it is in the best interest of all of Liberty’s stockholders to effect a redemptive split-off whereby all or a portion of the outstanding shares of a particular tracking stock would be redeemed for shares of common stock of a subsidiary (“Splitco”) that holds all or a portion of the assets and liabilities attributed to such tracking stock group subject to the approval of only the holders of the tracking stock to be redeemed. However, the vote of holders of Liberty’s other tracking stocks would not be required, unless Splitco also held assets and liabilities of such other tracking stock group(s). If Liberty were to effect a redemptive split-off, then, pursuant to the terms of its charter, Liberty would be required to redeem the outstanding shares of the affected tracking stock from its holders on an equal per share basis (i.e., it could not redeem shares from holders of only certain series of the affected tracking stock or redeem from all holders of the affected tracking stock on a non-pro rata basis). Following a redemptive split-off, holders of the other tracking stock(s) would continue to hold stock tracking the performance of Liberty’s remaining assets and liabilities which would not have changed after the redemptive split-off, unless a reattribution among the tracking stocks occurred in connection with the redemptive split-off (as discussed below). In addition, in the case of a partial redemptive split-off, holders of the affected tracking stock would hold shares of Splitco and continue to hold a reduced number of shares of the affected tracking stock which would track the remaining assets and liabilities retained by Liberty and attributed to such tracking stock after the split-off.

Liberty is also permitted, pursuant to the terms of its charter, to effect a spin-off of certain of its assets and liabilities through the dividend of shares of a subsidiary holding such assets and liabilities, and the spin-off would not be subject to prior stockholder approval. In this situation, a tracking stock holder would retain their tracking stock shares and receive shares of the spun-off entity.

Furthermore, in structuring these transactions, Liberty’s board of directors may determine to alter the composition of the assets and liabilities underlying its tracking stock groups through a reattribution. As contemplated by both the charter and the Management and Allocation Policies designed to assist Liberty in managing and separately presenting the businesses and operations attributed to our tracking stock groups, Liberty’s board of directors is vested with the discretion to reattribute assets and liabilities from one tracking stock group to another tracking stock group without the approval of any of its stockholders, and the only limitations on its exercise of such discretion are that the reattribution be in the best interest of all of Liberty’s stockholders and that the reattribution be done on a fair value basis. Holders of the affected tracking stock groups will not be entitled to a separate vote to approve a reattribution, even if such reattribution is occurring in connection with a redemptive split-off and such stockholders would otherwise be entitled to vote on the redemptive split-off itself.

Our board of directors’ ability to reattribute businesses, assets and expenses between and among  tracking stock groups may make it difficult to assess the future prospects of our tracking stock groups based on past performance.

Any reattribution made by our board of directors (as discussed above), as well as the existence, in and of itself, of the right to effect a reattribution may impact the ability of investors to assess the future prospects of the businesses and assets attributed to a tracking stock group, including liquidity and capital resource needs, based on past performance. Stockholders may also have difficulty evaluating the liquidity and capital resources of the businesses and assets attributed to each group based on past performance, as our board of directors may use one group’s liquidity to fund another group’s liquidity and capital expenditure requirements through the use of inter-group loans and inter-group interests.

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We could be required to use assets attributed to one group to pay liabilities attributed to another group.

The assets attributed to one group are potentially subject to the liabilities attributed to another group, even if those liabilities arise from lawsuits, contracts or indebtedness that are attributed to such other group. While our current management and allocation policies provide that reattributions of assets between groups will result in the creation of an inter-group loan or an inter-group interest or an offsetting reattribution of cash or other assets, no provision of our current charter prevents us from satisfying liabilities of one group with assets of another group, and our creditors are not in any way limited by our tracking stock capitalization from proceeding against any assets they could have proceeded against if we did not have a tracking stock capitalization.

The market price of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock may not reflect the performance of the businesses and assets attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group, respectively, as we intend.

We cannot assure you that the market price of the common stock related to a group will, in fact, reflect the performance of the group of businesses, assets and liabilities attributed to that group. Holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock are common stockholders of our Company as a whole and, as such, are subject to all risks associated with an investment in our Company and all of our businesses, assets and liabilities. As a result, the market price of each tracking stock may, in part, reflect events that are intended to be reflected or tracked by a different tracking stock of our Company. In addition, investors may discount the value of the stock related to a group because it is part of a common enterprise rather than a stand-alone entity.

The market price of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock may be volatile, could fluctuate substantially and could be affected by factors that do not affect traditional common stock.

The market prices of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock may be materially affected by, among other things:

·

actual or anticipated fluctuations in a group’s operating results or in the operating results of particular companies attributable to such group;

·

potential acquisition activity by our Company (regardless of the group to which it is attributed) or the companies in which we invest;

·

issuances of debt or equity securities to raise capital by our Company or the companies in which we invest and the manner in which that debt or the proceeds of an equity issuance are attributed to each of the groups;

·

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts regarding Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock or the companies attributable to our tracking stock groups;

·

the complex nature and the potential difficulties investors may have in understanding the terms of our three tracking stocks, as well as concerns regarding the possible effect of certain of those terms on an investment in our stocks; and

·

general market conditions.

The market value of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock could be adversely affected by events involving the assets and businesses attributed to one or more of the other groups.

Because we are the issuer of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock, an adverse market reaction to events relating to the assets and businesses attributed to one of our groups, such as earnings announcements, announcements of new products or services or acquisitions or dispositions that the market does not view favorably, may cause an adverse market reaction in the common stock of the other groups. This

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could occur even if the triggering event is not material to us as a whole. Certain events may also have a greater impact on one group than the same triggering event would have on another group due to the asset composition of the affected group. In addition, the incurrence of significant indebtedness by us or any of our subsidiaries on behalf of one group, including indebtedness incurred or assumed in connection with acquisitions of or investments in businesses, could affect our credit rating and that of our subsidiaries and, therefore, could increase the borrowing costs of businesses attributable to our other groups or the borrowing costs of our Company as a whole.

We may not pay dividends equally or at all on Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock.

We do not presently intend to pay cash dividends on Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock for the foreseeable future. However, we have the right to pay dividends on the shares of common stock related to each group in equal or unequal amounts, and we may pay dividends on the shares of common stock related to one group and not pay dividends on shares of common stock related to another group. In addition, any dividends or distributions on, or repurchases of, shares relating to a group will reduce our assets legally available to be paid as dividends on the shares relating to another group.

Our tracking stock capital structure could create conflicts of interest, and our board of directors may make decisions that could adversely affect only some holders of our common stock.

Our tracking stock capital structure could give rise to occasions when the interests of holders of stock related to one group might diverge or appear to diverge from the interests of holders of stock related to one or both of the other groups. In addition, given the nature of their businesses, there may be inherent conflicts of interests between the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group. Our tracking stock groups are not separate entities and thus holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock do not have the right to elect separate boards of directors. As a result, our Company’s officers and directors owe fiduciary duties to our Company as a whole and all of our stockholders as opposed to only holders of a particular group. Decisions deemed to be in the best interest of our Company and all of our stockholders may not be in the best interest of a particular group or groups when considered independently. Examples include:

·

decisions as to the terms of any business relationships that may be created between groups, such as between the Liberty SiriusXM Group and the Braves Group or between the Liberty SiriusXM Group and the Formula One Group;

·

the terms of any reattributions of assets between one or more groups;

·

decisions as to the allocation of consideration among the holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock, or among the series of stocks relating to our groups, to be received in connection with a merger involving our Company;

·

decisions as to the allocation of corporate opportunities between the groups, especially where the opportunities might meet the strategic business objectives of more than one group;

·

decisions as to operational and financial matters that could be considered detrimental to one or more groups but beneficial to another;

·

decisions as to the conversion of shares of common stock of one group into shares of common stock of another;

·

decisions regarding the creation of, and, if created, the subsequent increase or decrease of any inter-group interest that one group may own in another group;

·

decisions as to the internal or external financing attributable to businesses or assets attributed to any of our groups;

·

decisions as to the dispositions of assets of any of our groups; and

·

decisions as to the payment of dividends on the stock relating to any of our groups.

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Our directors’ or officers’ equity ownership may create or appear to create conflicts of interest.

If directors or officers own disproportionate interests (in percentage or value terms) in Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock, that disparity could create or appear to create conflicts of interest when they are faced with decisions that could have different implications for the holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock.

Other than pursuant to our management and allocation policies, we have not adopted any specific procedures for consideration of matters involving a divergence of interests among holders of shares of stock relating to our three groups, or among holders of different series of stock relating to a specific group.

Rather than develop additional specific procedures in advance, our board of directors intends to exercise its judgment from time to time, depending on the circumstances, as to how best to:

·

obtain information regarding the divergence (or potential divergence) of interests;

·

determine under what circumstances to seek the assistance of outside advisers;

·

determine whether a committee of our board of directors should be appointed to address a specific matter and the appropriate members of that committee; and

·

assess what is in our best interests and the best interests of all of our stockholders.

Our board of directors believes the advantage of retaining flexibility in determining how to fulfill its responsibilities in any such circumstances as they may arise outweighs any perceived advantages of adopting additional specific procedures in advance.

Our board of directors may change the management and allocation policies to the detriment of one or more groups without stockholder approval.

Our board of directors has adopted certain management and allocation policies to serve as guidelines in making decisions regarding the relationships among the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group with respect to matters such as tax liabilities and benefits, inter-group loans, inter-group interests, attribution of assets, financing alternatives, corporate opportunities and similar items. These policies also set forth the initial focuses and strategies of these groups and the initial attribution of our businesses, assets and liabilities among them. These policies are not included in the current charter. Our board of directors may at any time change or make exceptions to these policies. Because these policies relate to matters concerning the day-to-day management of our Company as opposed to significant corporate actions, such as a merger involving our Company or a sale of substantially all of our assets, no stockholder approval is required with respect to their adoption or amendment. A decision to change, or make exceptions to, these policies or adopt additional policies could disadvantage one or more groups while advantaging the other(s).

Holders of shares of stock relating to a particular group may not have any remedies if any action by our directors or officers has an adverse effect on only that stock, or on a particular series of that stock.

Principles of Delaware law and the provisions of our current charter may protect decisions of our board of directors that have a disparate impact upon holders of shares of stock relating to a particular group, or upon holders of any series of stock relating to a particular group. Under Delaware law, the board of directors has a duty to act with due care and in the best interests of all of our stockholders, regardless of the stock, or series, they hold. Principles of Delaware law established in cases involving differing treatment of multiple classes or series of stock provide that a board of directors owes an equal duty to all stockholders and does not have separate or additional duties to any subset of stockholders. Judicial opinions in Delaware involving tracking stocks have established that decisions by directors or officers involving differing treatment of holders of tracking stocks may be judged under the business judgment rule. In some circumstances, our directors or officers may be required to make a decision that is viewed as adverse to the holders of shares relating to a particular group or to the holders of a particular series of that stock. Under the principles of Delaware law and the business judgment rule referred to above, a stockholder may not be able to successfully challenge decisions that they believe have

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a disparate impact upon the stockholders of one of our groups if a majority of our board of directors is disinterested and independent with respect to the action taken, is adequately informed with respect to the action taken and acts in good faith and in the honest belief that the board of directors is acting in the best interest of Liberty and all of our stockholders.

Stockholders will not vote on how to attribute consideration received in connection with a merger involving our Company among holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock.

Our current charter does not contain any provisions governing how consideration received in connection with a merger or consolidation involving our Company is to be attributed to the holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, holders of Liberty Braves common stock and holders of Liberty Formula One common stock or to the holders of different series of stock, and none of the holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock will have a separate class vote in the event of such a merger or consolidation. Consistent with applicable principles of Delaware law, our board of directors will seek to divide the type and amount of consideration received in a merger or consolidation involving our Company among holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock in a fair manner. As the different ways the board of directors may divide the consideration between holders of stock relating to the different groups, and among holders of different series of a particular stock, might have materially different results, the consideration to be received by holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock in any such merger or consolidation may be materially less valuable than the consideration they would have received if they had a separate class vote on such merger or consolidation.

We may dispose of assets of the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group without stockholder approval.

Delaware law requires stockholder approval only for a sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of our Company taken as a whole, and our current charter does not require a separate class vote in the case of a sale of a significant amount of assets of any of our groups. As long as the assets attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group proposed to be disposed of represent less than substantially all of our assets, we may approve sales and other dispositions of any amount of the assets of such group without any stockholder approval.

If we dispose of all or substantially all of the assets attributed to any group (which means, for this purpose, assets representing 80% of the fair market value of the total assets of the disposing group, as determined by our board of directors), we would be required under the terms of our current charter, if the disposition is not an exempt disposition under the terms of our current charter, to choose one or more of the following three alternatives:

·

declare and pay a dividend on the disposing group’s common stock;

·

redeem shares of the disposing group’s common stock in exchange for cash, securities or other property; and/or

·

convert all or a portion of the disposing group’s outstanding common stock into common stock of another group.

In this type of a transaction, holders of the disposing group’s common stock may receive less value than the value that a third-party buyer might pay for all or substantially all of the assets of the disposing group.

Our board of directors will decide, in its sole discretion, how to proceed and is not required to select the option that would result in the highest value to holders of any stock related to a particular group.

Holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock may receive less consideration upon a sale of the assets attributed to that group than if that group were a separate company.

If the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group were a separate, independent company and its shares were acquired by another person, certain costs of that sale, including corporate level taxes, might

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not be payable in connection with that acquisition. As a result, stockholders of a separate, independent company with the same assets might receive a greater amount of proceeds than the holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock would receive upon a sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the group to which their shares relate. In addition, we cannot assure you that in the event of such a sale the per share consideration to be paid to holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock, as the case may be, will be equal to or more than the per share value of that share of stock prior to or after the announcement of a sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the applicable group. Further, there is no requirement that the consideration paid be tax-free to the holders of the shares of common stock related to that group. Accordingly, if we sell all or substantially all of the assets attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group, our stockholders could suffer a loss in the value of their investment in our stock.

In the event of a liquidation of Liberty, holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock will not have a priority with respect to the assets attributed to the related tracking stock group remaining for distribution to stockholders.

Under our current charter, upon Liberty’s liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock will be entitled to receive, in respect of their shares of such stock, their proportionate interest in all of Liberty’s assets, if any, remaining for distribution to holders of common stock in proportion to their respective number of “liquidation units” per share. Relative liquidation units were initially determined based on the volume weighted average prices of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock over the 20 trading day period which commenced shortly after the filing of our restated charter on April 15, 2016 and the fraction of a liquidation unit related to each share of Liberty Braves common stock was further adjusted in connection with the rights distribution in May 2016. Hence, the assets to be distributed to a holder of any of our tracking stocks upon a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of Liberty will have nothing to do with the value of the assets attributed to the related tracking stock group or to changes in the relative value of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock over time.

Our board of directors may elect to convert the common stock relating to one group into common stock relating to another group, thereby changing the nature of a stockholder’s investment and possibly diluting their economic interest in our Company, which could result in a loss in value to them.

Our current charter permits our board of directors to convert all of the outstanding shares of common stock relating to any of our groups into shares of common stock of another group on specified terms. A conversion would preclude the holders of stock related to each group involved in such conversion from retaining their investment in a security that is intended to reflect separately the performance of the relevant group. We cannot predict the impact on the market value of our stock of (1) our board of directors’ ability to effect any such conversion or (2) the exercise of this conversion right by our board of directors. In addition, our board of directors may effect such a conversion at a time when the market value of our different stocks could cause the stockholders of one group to be disadvantaged.

Holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock vote together and have limited separate voting rights.

Holders of Series A and Series B Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock vote together as a single class, except in certain limited circumstances prescribed by our current charter and under Delaware law. Each share of Series B common stock of each group has ten votes per share, and each share of Series A common stock of each group has one vote per share. Holders of Series C common stock of each group have no voting rights, other than those required under Delaware law. When holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock vote together as a single class, holders having a majority of the votes are in a position to control the outcome of the vote even if the matter involves a conflict of interest among our stockholders or has a greater impact on one group than another.

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Transactions in Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock by our insiders could depress the market price of those stocks.

Sales of, or hedging transactions such as collars relating to, shares of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock by our Chairman of the Board, or any of our other directors or executive officers, could cause a perception in the marketplace that the stock price of the relevant shares has peaked or that adverse events or trends have occurred or may be occurring at our Company or the group to which the shares relates. This perception can result notwithstanding any personal financial motivation for these transactions. As a result, insider transactions could depress the market price for shares of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock or Liberty Formula One common stock.

Our current charter includes restrictions on the share ownership of Liberty Braves common stock by certain persons, which if triggered would result in an immediate transfer of the applicable number of shares to a trust for the benefit of the holder.

To comply with the policies of the MLB, our current charter provides that (i) employees of MLB and related entities may not own Liberty Braves common stock, (ii) persons who are employed by or otherwise associated with an MLB club other than the Braves may not own 5% or more of the number of outstanding shares of Liberty Braves common stock, and (iii) no person may own 10% or more of the number of outstanding shares of Liberty Braves common stock unless, in the case of this clause (iii), such person is expressly approved by the Commissioner or qualifies as an exempt person (which is generally defined to include our Chairman John C. Malone, Chief Executive Officer Gregory B. Maffei, the Chairman of Braves Holdings, LLC Terence McGuirk and certain of their related persons). In the event that a holder attempts to acquire shares of Liberty Braves common stock in violation of this charter provision, the applicable shares will automatically be transferred to a trust which will sell the shares for the benefit of the holder (subject to certain exceptions, such as in the event of an inadvertent violation of the restrictions described in clause (ii) or (iii) above which is cured within the applicable time frame). No assurance can be given that the trust will be able to sell the shares at a price that is equal to or greater than the price paid by the holder. In addition, the holder’s right to receive the net proceeds of the sale, as well as any dividends or other distributions to which the holder would otherwise be entitled, will be subject to the holder’s compliance with the applicable mechanics included in our current charter.

Our capital structure, as well as the fact that the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group are not independent companies, may inhibit or prevent acquisition bids for the businesses attributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group and may make it difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our stockholders.

If the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group were separate independent companies, any person interested in acquiring the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group or the Formula One Group without negotiating with management could seek control of that group by obtaining control of its outstanding voting stock, by means of a tender offer or a proxy contest. Although we intend Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock to reflect the separate economic performance of the Liberty SiriusXM Group, the Braves Group and the Formula One Group, respectively, those groups are not separate entities and a person interested in acquiring only one group without negotiation with our management could obtain control of that group only by obtaining control of a majority in voting power of all of the outstanding voting shares of our Company. The existence of shares of common stock, and different series of shares, relating to different groups could present complexities and in certain circumstances pose obstacles, financial and otherwise, to an acquiring person that are not present in companies that do not have a capital structure similar to ours.

Certain provisions of our current charter and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our Company that a stockholder may consider favorable. These provisions include:

·

authorizing a capital structure with multiple series of common stock: a Series B common stock related to each group that entitles the holders to ten votes per share, a Series A common stock related to each group that entitles the holder to one vote per share, and a Series C common stock related to each group that, except as otherwise required by Delaware law, entitles the holder to no voting rights;

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·

classifying our board of directors with staggered three-year terms, which may lengthen the time required to gain control of our board of directors;

·

limiting who may call special meetings of stockholders;

·

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;

·

establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings;

·

requiring stockholder approval by holders of at least 66⅔% of our aggregate voting power or the approval by at least 75% of our board of directors with respect to certain extraordinary matters, such as a merger or consolidation of our Company, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or an amendment to our current charter; and

·

the existence of authorized and unissued stock, including “blank check” preferred stock, which could be issued by our board of directors to persons friendly to our then current management, thereby protecting the continuity of our management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of our Company.

Liberty’s Chairman, John C. Malone, beneficially owns shares (based on outstanding share information as of January 31, 2019) representing the power to direct approximately 47.7% of the aggregate voting power in Liberty, due to his beneficial ownership of approximately 96.3% of the outstanding shares of each of the Series B Liberty SiriusXM common stock, the Series B Liberty Braves common stock and the Series B Liberty Formula One common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties.

We own our corporate headquarters in Englewood, Colorado.

SIRIUS XM owns office, production, data center, and engineering facilities in Washington D.C. and New Jersey. Additionally, SIRIUS XM leases property for its headquarters in New York and leases additional properties in New York, New Jersey, Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, Georgia, Virginia, California and Texas for its office, production, technical, studio and engineering facilities and call center. In addition, SIRIUS XM leases or licenses space at approximately 540 locations for use in connection with the terrestrial repeater networks that support its satellite radio services. In general, these leases and licenses are for space on building rooftops and communications towers, none of which are individually material to the business or its operations.

Formula 1 owns no material property. Formula 1 leases space for its offices in London, England and for its television production and technical operations in Kent, England.

For a description of Braves Holdings’ property, see “Item 1. Business—Braves Holdings, LLC—Facilities” and “Item 1. Business—Braves Holdings, LLC—Mixed-Use Development.”

Our other subsidiaries and business affiliates own or lease the fixed assets necessary for the operation of their respective businesses, including office space and entertainment venues. Our management believes that our current facilities are suitable and adequate for our business operations for the foreseeable future.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Telephone Consumer Protection Act Suits

On March 13, 2017, Thomas Buchanan, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, filed a class action complaint against SIRIUS XM in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Dallas Division. The plaintiff in this action alleges that SIRIUS XM violated the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (the “TCPA”) by, among other things, making telephone solicitations to persons on the National Do-Not-Call registry, a database established to allow consumers to exclude themselves from telemarketing calls unless they consent to receive the calls in a signed, written agreement, and making calls to consumers in violation of SIRIUS XM’s internal Do-Not-Call registry. The plaintiff is seeking various forms of relief, including statutory damages of $500 for each violation of the TCPA or, in the alternative, treble damages of up to $1,500 for each knowing and willful violation of the TCPA and a permanent injunction prohibiting SIRIUS XM from making, or having made, any calls to land lines that are listed on the National Do-Not-Call registry or SIRIUS XM’s internal Do-Not-Call registry. The plaintiff has filed a motion seeking class certification, and that motion is pending. SIRIUS XM believes it has substantial defenses to the claims asserted in this action, and intends to defend this action vigorously.

Delta Topco

As reported in certain media outlets, it is understood that a UK Member of Parliament has written to the UK’s Serious Fraud Office (the SFO) to raise certain issues in relation to the 2013 Concorde Implementation Agreement made between Formula 1 and the governing body of world motorsport, the Federation Internationale de l’Automobile. The SFO responded in May 2017, thanking the Member for bringing the matter to its attention. The SFO indicated that the matter was currently in its pre-investigation stage and that, in order to consider whether the SFO should open an investigation, it would review relevant material to determine whether or not there are suspected offences that on reasonable grounds involve serious or complex fraud.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

 

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PART II.

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Liberty Media Corporation (“Liberty,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our”) has three classes of stock. Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock trade under the symbols LSXMA/B/K, respectively; Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Braves common stock trade or are quoted under the symbols BATRA/B/K respectively; and Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Media common stock traded or were quoted under the symbols LMCA/B/K, respectively. Shortly following the closing of the acquisition of Formula 1 on January 23, 2017 (the “Second Closing”), the Liberty Media Group and Liberty Media common stock were renamed the Liberty Formula One Group (the “Formula One Group”) and the Liberty Formula One common stock, respectively, and the corresponding ticker symbols for the Series A, Series B and Series C Liberty Media common stock were changed to FWONA/B/K, respectively. Each series (Series A, Series B and Series C) of the Liberty SiriusXM common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Series A and Series C Liberty Braves common stock trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Stock Market, and Series B Liberty Braves common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets. Series A and Series C Liberty Formula One common stock continue to trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Series B Liberty Formula One common stock continues to be quoted on the OTC Markets. Although the Second Closing, and the corresponding tracking stock name and the ticker symbol change, were not completed until January 23 and January 24, 2017, respectively, historical information of the Liberty Media Group and Liberty Media common stock is referred to herein as the Formula One Group and Liberty Formula One common stock, respectively. Stock price information for securities traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market can be found on the Nasdaq’s website at www.nasdaq.com.

 

The following tables set forth the range of high and low sales prices of our Series B Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Series B Liberty Braves common stock and Series B Liberty Formula One common stock for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Although our Series B Liberty SiriusXM common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, an established public trading market does not exist for the stock, as it is not actively traded. Additionally, there is no established public trading market for our Series B Liberty Braves common stock and our Series B Liberty Formula One common stock, which are quoted on OTC Markets. The over-the-counter market quotations for our series B Liberty Braves common stock and our Series B Liberty Formula One common stock reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberty SiriusXM Group

 

 

 

 

 

Series B (LSXMB)

 

 

 

    

 

High

    

Low

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

41.20

 

33.82

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

43.30

 

37.72

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

46.18

 

41.53

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

46.51

 

39.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

47.61

 

38.62

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

47.80

 

40.78

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

49.94

 

45.61

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

43.24

 

35.46

 

 

 

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Braves Group

 

 

 

 

 

Series B (BATRB)

 

 

 

    

 

High

    

Low

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

21.00

 

21.00

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

25.80

 

23.92

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

27.64

 

25.10

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

27.54

 

22.40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

24.50

 

24.50

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

26.00

 

22.95

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

27.00

 

25.75

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

27.00

 

24.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formula One Group

 

 

 

 

 

Series B (FWONB)

 

 

 

    

 

High

    

Low

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

32.81

 

28.25

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

35.26

 

30.60

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

37.68

 

30.00

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

38.77

 

33.26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

36.81

 

30.10

 

 

Second quarter

 

$

32.62

 

28.00

 

 

Third quarter

 

$

36.50

 

32.50

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

31.75

 

28.55

 

 

Holders

The number of record holders as of January 31, 2019 were as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

Liberty SiriusXM common stock

1,161

 

68

 

1,223

 

Liberty Braves common stock

1,654

 

43

 

841

 

Liberty Formula One common stock

822

 

62

 

1,049

 

 

The foregoing numbers of record holders do not include the number of stockholders whose shares are held nominally by banks, brokerage houses or other institutions, but include each such institution as one shareholder.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we have no present intention of so doing. Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will be determined by our board of directors in light of our earnings, financial condition and other relevant considerations.

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Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement for our 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

Share Repurchase Programs

On January 11, 2013 (ratified February 26, 2013) Liberty announced that its board of directors authorized $450 million of repurchases of Liberty Media Corporation common stock from that day forward. Additionally, in connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, an additional authorization of $300 million in Liberty share repurchases was approved by the Liberty board of directors on October 9, 2014. In August 2015, our board of directors authorized an additional $1 billion of Liberty Media Corporation common stock repurchases. The amount previously authorized for share repurchases may be used to repurchase Series A and Series C of each of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Braves common stock and Liberty Formula One common stock.

A summary of the repurchase activity for the three months ended December 31, 2018 is as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series C Liberty SiriusXM Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d) Maximum Number

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c) Total Number of

 

(or Approximate Dollar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares Purchased

 

Value) of Shares that

 

 

 

 

(a) Total Number

 

(b) Average

 

as Part of Publicly

 

May Yet be Purchased

 

 

 

 

of Shares

 

Price Paid per

 

Announced Plans

 

Under the Plans or

 

 

Period

    

Purchased

    

Share

    

or Programs

    

Programs

  

 

October 1 - 31, 2018

 

625,049

 

$ 43.19

 

625,049

 

$

882

million

 

November 1 - 30, 2018

 

 —

 

NA

 

 —

 

$

882

million

 

December 1 - 31, 2018

 

1,869,060

 

$ 38.10

 

1,869,060

 

$

811

million

 

Total

 

2,494,109

 

 

 

2,494,109

 

 

 

 

 

 

There were no repurchases of Series A Liberty SiriusXM common stock, Liberty Formula One common stock or Liberty Braves common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2018.

During the three months ended December 31, 2018, no shares of Series A and 68 shares of Series C Liberty Formula One common stock, no shares of Series A and 272 shares of Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock, and no shares of Series A and 27 shares of Series C Liberty Braves common stock were surrendered by certain of our officers and employees to pay withholding taxes and other deductions in connection with the vesting of their restricted stock and restricted stock units.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following tables present selected historical financial statement information relating to our financial condition and results of operations for the past five years. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for comparability with the current year presentation. The following data should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

2015

    

2014

    

 

 

amounts in millions

 

Summary Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

 

$

358

 

1,029

 

562

 

201

 

681

 

Investments in debt and equity securities

 

$

1,278

 

1,114

 

1,309

 

533

 

816

 

Investment in affiliates, accounted for using the equity method

 

$

1,641

 

1,750

 

1,117

 

1,115

 

851

 

Intangible assets not subject to amortization (1)

 

$

28,060

 

28,057

 

24,018

 

24,018

 

24,018

 

Intangible assets  subject to amortization, net (1)

 

$

5,715

 

6,192

 

1,072

 

1,097

 

1,166

 

Total assets (1)

 

$

40,828

 

41,996

 

31,377

 

29,798

 

30,269

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

$

2,079

 

1,941

 

1,877

 

1,797

 

1,641

 

Long-term debt, including current portion (1)

 

$

13,388

 

13,954

 

8,018

 

6,881

 

5,845

 

Deferred tax liabilities, net

 

$

1,651

 

1,478

 

2,025

 

1,667

 

1,507

 

Stockholders' equity (1)

 

$

16,595

 

16,943

 

11,756

 

10,933

 

11,398

 

Noncontrolling interest

 

$

5,103

 

5,631

 

5,960

 

7,198

 

8,778

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

2015

    

2014

 

 

 

amounts in millions, except per share amounts

 

Summary Statement of Operations Data:

    

 

 

    

 

    

 

    

 

    

 

   

Revenue (1)

 

$

8,040

 

7,594

 

5,276

 

4,795

 

4,450

 

Operating income (loss)

 

$

1,511

 

1,394

 

1,734

 

954

 

841

 

Interest expense (1)

 

$

(606)

 

(591)

 

(362)

 

(328)

 

(255)

 

Share of earnings (loss) of affiliates, net

 

$

18

 

104

 

14

 

(40)

 

(113)

 

Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments, net

 

$

40

 

(88)

 

37

 

(140)

 

38

 

Net earnings (loss) attributable to the noncontrolling interests

 

$

334

 

536

 

244

 

184

 

217

 

Net earnings (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Liberty Media Corporation stockholders (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberty Media Corporation common stock